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Cartels/Gangs p. 5 Tunnels - Smuggling
IN THIS SECTION     Cartels/Gangs-General (p. 1)     Cartels/Gangs-How to Stop (p. 2)    Cartels/Gangs-Female Gang Members, Traffickers (p. 3)        Cartels/Gangs-New Mexico (p. 4-here)     Cartels/Gangs (p.5-here)- Tunnels - Smuggling *see below    Cartels/Gangs-Books (p.6)    “I hope this sends a clear message that despite the ongoing public health crisis, HSI and our law enforcement partners will remain resilient and continue to pursue criminal organizations responsible for the cross-border smuggling of narcotics into the United States.” --Cardell T. Morant, Acting Special Agent in Charge of HSI San Diego - March 2020 case *On this Page Tunnels-Smuggling: Some Agencies Involved in Detection Smuggling Tunnels Paraguay Prison Tunnel Historic - possible opium 1900-1920 - near El Paso, Texas Tunnel Detection Technology Articles by Year Also see Borders AGENCIES INVOLVED IN DETECTION U.S. Customs and Border Protection U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement Homeland Security Investigations (HSI) San Diego Tunnel Task Force  (of note for 2020/03 case: AUSA Orlando Gutierrez) US Border Patrol Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) United States Attorney’s Office San Diego Sheriff’s Office Government of Mexico authorities cooperation  in bi-lateral investigations Fiscalia General de la Republica (FGR) Secretaria de la Defensa Nacional (SEDENA) SMUGGLING TUNNELS Brief Summary of Smuggling Tunnels to USA: 183 illicit cross-border tunnels have  been discovered in the United States since 1990. 2020/03/19   Tijuana to San Diego-Otay Mesa-warehouse in commercial complex/ more than 2000 feet. Agents seized approximately 1,300 pounds of cocaine, 86 pounds of methamphetamine, 17 pounds of heroin, 3,000 pounds of marijuana and more than two pounds of fentanyl from the tunnel.   The large seizure of mixed drugs represents the first time in San Diego’s history where five different types of drugs were found inside a tunnel. The total street value of the drugs seized from the tunnel is estimated at $29.6 million. 2020/02   Arizona border - Nogales, Mexico to Nogales, Arizona;Grand Avenue drainage system,  Dennis DeConcini port of entry.  An incomplete smuggling tunnel was discovered by authorities at the Arizona-Mexico border — the 126th underground pathway found by border agents in that area since 1990; S Customs and Border Protection agents, along with Mexican authorities, located the tunnel that originated at a drainage facility in Nogales, Mexico, and extended 30 feet into Nogales, Arizona, CBP said in a press release. Described by authorities as a “rudimentary” tunnel, the hand-dug pathway had no shoring, ventilation or lighting. Its depth was about 20-feet. (NY Post 2020/02/27 and Tucson Sentinel-2020/02/27in Articles by Year below) 2019 August, Tijuana to San Diego/4309 ft articles start coming out in 2020/January.  Stretching more than three-quarters of a mile from an industrial site in Tijuana, Mexico, to the San Diego area.4309 feet.The tunnel featured an extensive rail cart system, forced air ventilation, high voltage electrical cables and panels, an elevator at the tunnel entrance and a drainage system.  While there were no arrests, no drugs found at the site and no confirmed exit point in the U.S., the length — more than 14 football fields — stunned authorities. 2015 Tijuana to San Diego-Chicago & Midwest/2600 ft  - Tijuana Warehouse to San Diego Warehouse.  Fed shut down cartel supertunnel, stretched about 2,600 feet, which would make it one of the longest ever built under the U.S.-Mexico border.San Diego area with pipelines to Chicago and Midwest. Feds shut down cartel supertunnel that fed into Chicago 2013 LIST/OVERVIEW San Diego Tribune newspaper puts out a list of tunnels to date (Articles by Year below) 2012  Nogales Arizona. Tunnel had electricity and ventilation. 2011 LIST/OVERVIEW   Insight Crime gives a good rendering of tunnels found in San Diego and Nogales to date and tunnel discovery technology up to that point 2011 November  Southern California 550 metre tunnel 32 tons of marijuana both sides of the border. That tunnel was equipped with electric railcars, lighting and ventilation while wooden planks lined the floor. 2010/11/26 - Tijuana to San Diego (Otay Mesa). 2010/11   Tijuana to San Diego (Otay Mesa).  Both of these tunnels likely linked to Sinaloa cartel.  2600 foot tunnel. 2006/01/25 - Tijuana Airport area to San Diego warehouse. US - Mexico border; V&F distributors LLC.  Tijuana’s Arellano-Felix Drug Syndicate likely.  2400 foot long tunnel PARAGUAY  PRISON TUNNEL New York Times 2020/01/19   75 Drug Cartel Members Tunnel Out of Paraguay Prison.  By Santi Carneri and Ernesto Londoño https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/19/world/americas/paraguay-prison-escape-tunnel.html National Post 2020/01/20   Highly dangerous people': Brazilian cartel uses tunnel to free 75 inmates from Paraguay prison With more than 10,000 members, the PCC is one of Brazil’s largest criminal organizations https://nationalpost.com/news/world/highly-dangerous-people-brazilian-cartel-uses-tunnel-to-free-75- prisoners-from-paraguay-prison In a feat reminiscent of Joaquin “El Chapo” Guzman, at least 75 members of one of South America’s most notorious criminal gangs launched a spectacular jail break in Paraguay. The prisoners, including six alleged contract killers, appear to have fled through a large tunnel, the newspaper ABC reported. The justice ministry initially said 91 had escaped, and later reduced that figure to 75. All 75 remain at large in the area around the Brazil-Paraguay border; among them are an estimated 40 Brazilians and the remainder Paraguayans. The tunnel, which started in a cell and ended outside the prison walls, may have been a red herring to mask the fact that most of the escapees simply walked out of the main door, Interior Minister Euclides Acevedo told the TV station Telefuturo. Investigators believe some of them may even have left the prison in previous days, he said. The prisoners were members of the drug gang First Command of the Capital, known as PCC, Justice Minister Cecilia Perez told Telefuturo. With more than 10,000 members, the PCC is one of Brazil’s largest criminal organizations. The PCC dominates the drug trade and prisons in Sao Paulo and in recent years has expanded its operations into other countries including Paraguay. https://nationalpost.com/news/world/highly-dangerous-people-brazilian-cartel-uses-tunnel-to-free-75- prisoners-from-paraguay-prison HISTORIC  El Paso -Possible Opium Smuggling Tunnel of 1900-1920 near El Paso, Texas Fox News 2018/01/30   Border Patrol agents find tunnel in El Paso that connects city to storied past https://www.foxnews.com/us/border-patrol-agents-find-tunnel-in-el-paso-that-connects-city-to-storied- past Border Patrol agents in El Paso, Texas found a 75-foot tunnel along the U.S. bank of the Rio Grande river – and one former Border Patrol chief believes its origins could go back 100 years. TUNNEL DETECTION TECHNOLOGY 2018 National Defense Magazine 2018/01/02   Going Underground: The U.S. Government’s Hunt for Enemy Tunnels.  By Jon Harper https://www.nationaldefensemagazine.org/articles/2018/1/2/going-underground-the-us-governments-hunt-for-enemy- tunnels 2014 National Post 2014/01/15   How Mexico drug tunnels are built and a closer look at the new border agency robots that will patrol t hem. By AP https //nationalpost com/news/how-mexico-drug-tunnels-are-built-and-a-closer-look-at-the-new-border-agency-robots- that-will-patrol-them Excerpt:  The job of searching these networks can be dangerous, so the U.S. Border Patrol is unveiling its latest technology in the underground war — a wireless, camera-equipped robot that can do the job in a fraction of the time.  The agency is using the devices to keep agents out of harm’s way as many tunnels can be poorly built and possibly collapse and lack proper ventilation. The 5.4-kilogram robots also let agents navigate an underground labyrinth in a fraction of the time it would take an agent to explore the tunnel. And the devices can be used in tunnels and pipes where agents can’t fit.  The tunnel robots have been in use by Border Patrol for several years. But the agency recently paid $109,000 for the three new cameras with money from an asset forfeiture fund, which comes from the seizure of property in criminal cases, including drug cases involving cartel members, the Border Patrol said…HOW ARE TUNNELS EXPLORED AND INVESTIGATED ONCE THEY’RE LOCATED? So-called tunnel robots have been in use by Border Patrol for several years. They can safely navigate through corrugated pipes, tunnels, and drainage systems while an agent controls the device from the surface, seeing what the robot sees on a handheld screen. The robots are used, in part, as a safety measure to keep agents out of harm’s way as many tunnels can be poorly built and possibly collapse and lack proper ventilation. They also can navigate an underground labyrinth in a fraction of the time it would take an agent to explore the tunnel. Some of the newer robots, which weigh about 5.5 kilograms and can navigate through passageways that are only several feet wide, are being deployed this year across southern Arizona and California. https //nationalpost com/news/how-mexico-drug-tunnels-are-built-and-a-closer-look-at-the-new-border-agency-robots- that-will-patrol-them 2011 Insight Crime 2011/11/16  Tunnel Detection Technology at Mexico Border: Worth the Effort? ANALYSISWritten by Elyssa Pachico https //www insightcrime org/news/analysis/tunnel-detection-technology-at-mexico-border-worth-the-effort/ Excerpt:  One project experiments with ground sensors that use seismic waves to detect movement underground, as well as robots that map the terrain using infrared and other technologies.  There a various technologies the U.S. can use to detect tunnels, but all have their limitations. Ground penetrating radar does a poor job at detecting anything before 40 feet. This does little good considering that one tunnel discovered between San Diego and Tijuana traveled at a depth of almost 100 feet below the surface. Ground radar readings are also affected by ground conditions, and give poor results in urban settings or in damp, clay-rich soils. Other research involves microgravity — the measurement of minute changes in Earth’s gravitational field caused by cavities in the ground. However, the equipment is costly and could give many false alarms. Other technologies using cosmic rays and electrodes have proven to be as equally limited. Tunnels vary greatly in dimension and depth, which also complicates detection through these high-tech methods.  The Department of Defense is reportedly most focused on developing seismic and infrared technology to detect tunnels, although the Department of Homeland Security has observed that such research is slow and “labor intensive.” Israel has reportedly developed another method, using fiber optic cables, to track the tunnels excavated in the Gaza Strip and Lebanon. But installing such a system on a mass scale would be expensive and vulnerable to tampering. https //www insightcrime org/news/analysis/tunnel-detection-technology-at-mexico-border-worth-the-effort/ 2010 Mitre dot org 2010/09   UNDERGROUND RADAR SYSTEMS: FIGHTING TUNNELS WITH TUNNELS To aid the U.S. Border Patrol in the time-consuming and difficult task of locating smuggling tunnels, MITRE has designed a prototype system to boost the capability of ground-penetrating radar. https //www mitre org/publications/project-stories/underground-radar-systems-fighting-tunnels-with-tunnels Excerpt:  Last summer, while pursuing a tip from an alert citizen, the border patrol in Nogales surprised a smuggler sawing a hole from beneath the floor of an empty building. Under the building the agents found a tunnel that stretched 83 feet to its origin in Mexico. The tunnel, a sophisticated construction complete with ventilation and lighting, was the largest of the more than 60 tunnels the border patrol had uncovered in Nogales. Along the entire Mexican border, agents have uncovered more than 100 smuggling tunnels.   But finding each of these tunnels is time-consuming and difficult. To provide the border patrol with a reliable technological tool, MITRE designed a prototype system to boost the ability of ground-penetrating radar to spot tunnels. By running radar sensors through horizontal boreholes burrowed underground, border agents could get a much clearer view of the clandestine activity beneath their feet.  Underground Assistance:  Each of the smuggling tunnels near Nogales was uncovered through the border patrol's diligent intelligence gathering. While there is no replacing old-fashioned detective work, technology to reliably detect underground tunnels can only help make border agents' tough job easier. But the technology tested so far has not proved up to the task. For example, other sensors, such as current seismic sensors, have problems picking up signals in the midst of a noisy urban environment whereas the technology developed at MITRE does equally well in urban and isolated rural environments.  For some time, the Border Patrol has relied on ground-penetrating radar sensors placed on the surface of the border. But smugglers have taken advantage of the limited ability of the radar to peer through the surface clay and sand composition of the terrain along the majority of the border by burrowing their tunnels deep enough underground—up to 90 feet—to escape detection. Underground sensors, however, have not proven the better alternative. https //www mitre org/publications/project-stories/underground-radar-systems-fighting-tunnels-with-tunnels ARTICLES BY YEAR Note: several of these articles came from the source list in Wikipedia, excerpted down at bottom of this by-year list 2020 AP News 2020/03/31   "US finds major cross-border tunnel used to smuggle drugs". https //en wikipedia org/wiki/Smuggling_tunnel#:~:text=As%20of%20September%2030%2C%202015,US%20Border%20Patrol%20task%20force. AP News 2020/01/29 January Authorities find longest Southwest border smuggling tunnel By ELLIOT SPAGAT https://apnews.com/21b592aa0a812225dad0e44f2538de54 The tunnel exposes limitations of President Donald Trump’s border wall, which stretches several feet underground in the area and is considered effective against small, crudely built tunnels often called “gopher holes.” The one announced Wednesday was found about 70 feet (21 meters) underground, well below the wall. *Following the discovery in August, Mexican law enforcement identified the entrance and U.S. investigators mapped the tunnel that extends a total of 4,309 feet. (1,313 meters). The next longest tunnel in the U.S. was discovered in San Diego in 2014. It was 2,966 feet (904 meters) long. DEA 2020/03/31   San Diego Tunnel Task Force uncovers sophisticated cross-border drug tunnel under the U.S./Mexico border.  (Note: San Diego John W. Callery, Special Agent in Charge) Federal agents seize 4,400 pounds of illicit drugs from the tunnel’s exit in the U.S. https //www dea gov/press-releases/2020/03/31/san-diego-tunnel-task-force-uncovers-sophisticated-cross- border-drug Excerpt:  SAN DIEGO – Federal agents on the San Diego Tunnel Task Force uncovered a sophisticated drug smuggling tunnel on Thursday, March 19, which extends under the United States-Mexico border to a warehouse in a commercial complex in the Otay Mesa area of San Diego.  The discovery of the tunnel resulted from an ongoing investigation by members on the San Diego Tunnel Task Force, which include Homeland Security Investigations, U.S. Border Patrol, the Drug Enforcement Administration and the United States Attorney’s Office. https //www dea gov/press-releases/2020/03/31/san-diego-tunnel-task-force-uncovers-sophisticated-cross- border-drug Guardian 4309 ft tunnel - Below are 2020 articles from an August 2019* tunnel discovery 2020/01/29 Tunnel discovered on US-Mexico border is longest ever ... https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jan/29/drug.. Independent 4309 ft tunnel - Below are 2020 articles from an August 2019* tunnel discovery 2020/01/30   Authorities have not named any suspects but the area where the tunnel began has been a stronghold of Mexico’s Sinaloa cartel, whose longtim leder Joaquin El https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/... New York Post 2020/02/27  Smuggling Tunnel dug by hand discovered at US Mexico border.  By Kenneth Garger https //nypost com/2020/02/27/smuggling-tunnel-dug-by-hand-discovered-at-us-mexico-border/ Tucson Sentinel 2020/02/27  New cross-border smuggling tunnel found in Nogales, first of 2020.  By Paul Ingram. http //www tucsonsentinel com/local/report/022720_nogales_tunnel/new-cross-border-smuggling-tunnel- found-nogales-first-2020/ 2018 Fox News 2018/01/30   Border Patrol agents find tunnel in El Paso that connects city to storied past https //www foxnews com/us/border-patrol-agents-find-tunnel-in-el-paso-that-connects-city-to-storied-past Border Patrol agents in El Paso, Texas found a 75-foot tunnel along the U.S. bank of the Rio Grande river – and one former Border Patrol chief believes its origins could go back 100 years. 2016  Cross-Border Tunnels and Border Tunnel Prevention: Fiscal Year 2015 Report to Congress (Report). United States Department of Homeland Security U.S. Customs and Border Protection. 2016. p. 6. Retrieved 22 December 2018. As of September 30, 2015, 183 illicit cross-border tunnels have been discovered in the United States since Fiscal Year 1990 2015 ABC7 I Team Investigation  By Chuck Goudie 2015/10/23    Fed shut down cartel supertunnel  San Diego area with pipelines to Chicago and Midwest. Feds shut down cartel supertunnel that fed into Chicago Excerpt:  The top drug enforcement agent in Chicago keeps an eye on Mexico's drug cartels, primarily the Sinaloa cartel owned and operated by Joaquin "El Chapo" Guzman. It is no coincidence that El Chapo escaped a maximum security prison by tunnel last summer as his operatives are skilled tunnel engineers and builders.  The cross-border tunnel discovered by U.S. authorities on Wednesday is, they say, one of the longest and most elaborate underground passageways they have ever seen. Equipped with a lighting and ventilation system, the drug smuggling subway…According to U.S. authorities the passageway stretched about 2,600 feet, which would make it one of the longest ever built under the U.S.-Mexico border. https://abc7chicago.com/i-team-sinaloa-cartel-drug-smuggling-tunnel/1048395/ 2014 AP-Associated Press Billeaud (14 January 2014). "How tunnels are built, used along U.S.-Mexico border". KPBS. Nogales, Arizona. Associated Press. Retrieved 4 April 2014. Arizona Central (AZ Central dot com) 2014/11/12   "Largest-ever drug tunnel in Nogales found". azcentral.com. Retrieved 12 November 2014 2014 National Post 2014/01/15   How Mexico drug tunnels are built and a closer look at the new border agency robots that will patrol t hem. By AP https //nationalpost com/news/how-mexico-drug-tunnels-are-built-and-a-closer-look-at-the-new-border-agency-robots- that-will-patrol-them 2013 San Diego Tribune 2013/10/31   Since 1990, law enforcement officials have discovered more than 140 tunnels underneath the U.S. border. By U-T SAN DIEGO https://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/news/border-baja-california/sdut-border-tunnels-2013oct31-htmlstory.html International Journal of Criminology and Sociology. 2. 2013  Lichtenwald, Terrance G.; Perri, Frank S. (2013). "Terrorist Use of Smuggling Tunnels". 2012 AP - Associated Press 2012/12/28  "Mexican Authorities Find Smuggling Tunnel Equipped With Electricity Near Border". KILT (AM). Associated Global Post 2012/07/10   "Mexico's army finds drug tunnel to Arizona". 2011 Insight Crime 2011/11/16  Tunnel Detection Technology at Mexico Border: Worth the Effort? ANALYSISWritten by Elyssa Pachico https://www.insightcrime.org/news/analysis/tunnel-detection-technology-at-mexico- border-worth-the-effort/ 2010 BBC 2010/11/26  "Second Mexico-US drug tunnel found in Tijuana". 2011 Inside Homeland Security 2011 Spring  9(1)  Lichtenwald, Terrance G.; Perri, Frank S.  "Smuggling Tunnels:The Need for a Transnational Analysis". Wikipedia https //en wikipedia org/wiki/Smuggling_tunnel#:~:text=As%20of%20September%2030%2C%202015,US%20Border%20Patrol%20task%20force. Excerpt:  As of September 30, 2015, 183 illicit cross-border tunnels have been discovered in the United States since Fiscal Year 1990.[7] On January 25, 2006, a tunnel was found on the US-Mexico border by a joint US Drug Enforcement Administration, US Immigration and Customs Enforcement, and US Border Patrol task force. The 2,400-foot (730 m) long tunnel runs from a warehouse near the Tijuana airport to a warehouse in San Diego. When discovered, it was devoid of people, but it did contain 2 short tons (1,800 kg) of marijuana. It was 5 feet (1.5 m) high and up to 90 feet (27 m) deep. The floor was made of cement, and the walls were exposed clay, with lights lining one side, a ventilation system to keep fresh air circulating, and a water drainage system to remove infiltrating ground water. Authorities said it was unclear how long the tunnel had been in operation….On January 30, US Immigrations and Customs Enforcement agents arrested a Mexican citizen who was linked to the tunnel via the US warehouse, operated by V&F Distributors LLC. On the Friday before, January 27, immigration authorities reportedly received information that the Mexican cartel behind the operation was threatening the lives of any agents involved with the construction or occupation of the tunnel. US Customs and Immigration, however, pledged to protect them as best they could. Authorities believe Tijuana's Arellano-Felix drug syndicate, or some other well-known drug cartel, was behind the building and operation of the tunnel.[8] On November 26, 2010, a 2,600-foot (790 m) tunnel was discovered linking Tijuana to Otay Mesa, San Diego, California.[9] In the same month another tunnel was discovered between these two cities. Both tunnels were discovered by a San Diego task force and are believed to be the work of Mexico's Sinaloa cartel. Over 40 short tons (36,000 kg) of cannabis was found and confiscated between the two.[10]…An analysis of US-Mexico smuggling tunnels, the US-Canada smuggling tunnel, and the smuggling tunnels in Rafah, Gaza Strip, was completed by Lichtenwald and Perri as part of a transnational analysis of smuggling tunnels.[11][12] Lichtenwald and Perri outlined sources and methods for evaluating which tunnels are used by different populations in various parts of the world to smuggle contraband that does not threaten a nation’s security, which tunnels that smuggle contraband that does threaten a nation’s security, and hybrid tunnels that smuggle contraband that threaten a nation’s security as well as that which does not. In December 2012, a tunnel 3 feet in diameter and 100 yards long, with electricity and ventilation, was found near the Nogales, Arizona, port of entry.[13] Since 1990, there have been almost 170 tunnels found leading into Mexico, mostly in Arizona and California.[14] On February 14, 2014 another underground drug tunnel was discovered in Nogales…. The tunnel spanned 481 feet (147 m), or longer than 1.5 American football fields. The tunnel was being used to smuggle marijuana and other drugs into the US. Another 590 pounds (270 kg) of marijuana was seized after federal agents stopped a vehicle they saw driving away from the residence. Some 46 pounds (21 kg) of marijuana and 0.5 pounds (0.23 kg) of heroin were found inside the tunnel. Three people have been arrested in connection with the bust.[15] On March 19th, 2020, a tunnel connecting Tijuana to San Diego was discovered by the San Diego Tunnel Task Force. The tunnel extended 2,000 feet (610 m) and was outfitted with an underground rail system, ventilation and lighting. Over 1,300 pounds (590 kilograms) of cocaine, 86 pounds (39 kilograms) of methamphetamine, 17 pounds (7.7 kilograms) of heroin, 3,000 pounds (1,360 kilograms) of marijuana and 2 pounds (0.9 kilograms) of fentanyl were seized.[16] List of References from Wikipedia on Smuggling Tunnels, includes non-USA tunnels.  Grieshaber, Kirsten (2019-11-07). "Escape tunnel underneath Berlin Wall opens to public". Associated Press. Retrieved 2019-01-07.  "Slovaks find railway smuggling tunnel to Ukraine". Reuters. Retrieved 2014-03-01.  "Hiding places where smugglers concealed contraband". Smuggling.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-03-01.  Salkeld, Luke (27 February 2008). "Builders unearth 200-year-old smuggling network in Cornish pub | Daily Mail Online". Daily Mail. Retrieved 15 December 2015.   Ken MacQueen (2 November 2005). "B.C.'s tunnel busters". Macleans.ca. Archived from the original on 2010-12-06.  "Chapter 6: Washington State". United Divide: A Linear Portrait of the USA/Canada Border. The Center for Land Use Interpretation. Winter 2015.  Cross-Border Tunnels and Border Tunnel Prevention: Fiscal Year 2015 Report to Congress (Report). United States Department of Homeland Security U.S. Customs and Border Protection. 2016. p. 6. Retrieved 22 December 2018. As of September 30, 2015, 183 illicit cross-border tunnels have been discovered in the United States since Fiscal Year 1990  "Drug haul in secret border tunnel". BBC News. 27 January 2006.   "Second Mexico-US drug tunnel found in Tijuana". BBC News. 26 November 2010.  "Mexico's army finds drug tunnel to Arizona". GlobalPost. 2012-07-10. Retrieved 2014-03-01.  Lichtenwald, Terrance G.; Perri, Frank S. (Spring 2011). "Smuggling Tunnels:The Need for a Transnational Analysis". Inside Homeland Security. 9 (1).  Lichtenwald, Terrance G.; Perri, Frank S. (2013). "Terrorist Use of Smuggling Tunnels". International Journal of Criminology and Sociology. 2.   "Mexican Authorities Find Smuggling Tunnel Equipped With Electricity Near Border". KILT (AM). Associated Press. 28 December 2012. Retrieved 9 January 2013.   Billeaud (14 January 2014). "How tunnels are built, used along U.S.-Mexico border". KPBS. Nogales, Arizona. Associated Press. Retrieved 4 April 2014.  "Largest-ever drug tunnel in Nogales found". azcentral.com. Retrieved 12 November 2014.  "US finds major cross-border tunnel used to smuggle drugs". AP NEWS. 2020-03-31. Retrieved 2020-04-02. https //en wikipedia org/wiki/Smuggling_tunnel#:~:text=As%20of%20September%2030%2C%202015,US%20Border%20Patrol%20task%20force. Updates:  2020/06/14 El Chapo CNN-2019/04/03 Fast Facts section/article added at top of page; More added on March 2020 smuggling tunnel bust in San Diego; more added on Feb. 2020 smuggling tunnel bust in Nogales; Detection agency section created; Robots article added in Detection Tech,  National Post  2014/01/15 article added.  2020/06/13 detection technology section added with 2011 insight crime, 2010 mitre and 2018 nat’l def. articles;  2020/06/12 several additions; 2020/06/11 See also borders link added; 2020/06/07 This page Tunnels-Smuggling created separately.
El Chapo  “Is known for using intricate tunnel systems for both evading authorities and moving the massive quantities of drugs that made the Sinaloa Cartel so powerful.”  CNN Editorial Research 2020/04/03 Update, Original article was on 2017/01/18 Fast Facts:  Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán  https //www cnn.com/2017/01/18/world/joaqun-el-chapo-guzmn-fast-facts/index html Excerpt:  Here's a look at the life of Joaquín Guzmán, otherwise known as "El Chapo," a Mexican drug lord who has repeatedly broken out of prison.  He was recaptured in January 2016 and later extradited to the United States to stand trial on federal charges…   The nickname, "El Chapo," means "Shorty." Guzmán stands 5'6" tall.  Former leader of the Sinaloa Cartel, which the US Justice Department describes as "one of the world's most prolific, violent and powerful drug cartels," moving billions upon billions of dollars in marijuana, cocaine, heroin and methamphetamine…  Was able to continue running the Sinaloa Cartel in prison through bribes.  Is known for using intricate tunnel systems for both evading authorities and moving the massive quantities of drugs that made the Sinaloa Cartel so powerful…  July 17, 2019 - Guzmán is sentenced to life in prison plus 30 years. He is also ordered to pay $12.6 billion in forfeiture. Restitution will be determined later. October 17, 2019 - Mexican security forces temporarily detain Guzman Lopez during a shootout with suspected cartel members in Sinaloa state. Guzman Lopez is released and the operation suspended in order to save lives. https //www cnn com/2017/01/18/world/joaqun-el-chapo-guzmn-fast-facts/index html  Other: 2019/07/18 El Chapo disappeared two days now is at the Supermax [in Colorado] https //ww .nytimes.com/2019/07/18/nyregion/el-chapo-has-disappeared-is-he-at-the-supermax.html  2019/07/21 El Chapo is Colorado’s newest transplant https //www westword.com/news/el-chapo-is-colorados-newest-transplant-but-he-wont-like-his-accommodations-11417724