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Cybercrime and Dark or Deep Web
Cybercrime Networks Taylor and Francis online: Understanding How the Internet Facilitates Crime and Deviance. By Loretta J. Stalans and Mary A. Finn. Vol. 11 29 Jul 2016 https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15564886.2016.1211404 From: Journal Victims & Offenders An International Journal of Evidence-based Research, Policy, and Practice Volume 11, 2016 - Issue 4: How the Internet Facilitates Deviance Excerpt: Cybercrime is crime that is mediated by networked technology (Wall, 2007 Wall, D. S. (2007). Cybercrime: ). Old crimes such as theft, fraud, and harassment find new forms in cyberspace and information technologies…. Unlawful behavior in some countries is tolerated and legal behavior in other countries, allowing offenders to choose jurisdictions for their websites that have the least harsh legal consequences. Moreover, maintaining anonymity or bogus identities during the commission of crimes is easier in virtual spaces than in real physical space. Apps, avatars, disposable devices, and the deep web—where search engines cannot detect websites due to an added layer of security—facilitate a concealment of criminal transactions, socialization into subcultures, and networking of those involved in illicit or nonconventional behavior. Specialized forums and chat rooms in cyberspace have created virtual spaces to network and to form trustworthy underground markets for illicit drugs, prostitution, and child pornography (e.g., Beech, Elliot, Birgden, & Findlater, 2008 Resources Beech, A. R., Elliott, I. A., Birgden, A., & Findlater, D. (2008). The Internet and child sexual offending: A criminological review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 13, 216–228. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2008.03.007 [Crossref], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar] ; Lavorgna, 2014 Lavorgna, A. (2014). Internet-mediated drug trafficking: Towards a better understanding of new criminal dynamics. Trends in Organized Crime, 27, 250–270. doi:10.1007/s12117-014-9226-8 [Crossref], [Google Scholar] ; Stalans & Finn, 2016 Stalans, L. J. & Finn, M. A. (2016). Consulting legal experts in the real and virtual world: Pimps’ and johns’ cultural schemas about strategies to avoid arrest and conviction. Deviant Behavior, 37(6), 644–664. doi:10.1080/01639625.2015.1060810 [Taylor & Francis Online], [Google Scholar] ) and ideological deviant groups to incite terrorism, engage in espionage, or engage in harmful health risks such as The transformation of crime in the information age. Malden, MA: Polity Press.  [Google Scholar] Article:  Criminal and Routine Activities in Online Settings: Gangs, Offenders, and the Internet David C. Pyrooz et al. Justice Quarterly Volume 32, 2015 - Issue 3 Published online: 18 Mar 2013 Article: Applying Routine Activity Theory to Cybercrime: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis Eric Rutger Leukfeldt et al. Deviant Behavior Volume 37, 2016 - Issue 3 Published online: 19 Jan 2016 Article: SOCIAL LEARNING AND CYBER-DEVIANCE: EXAMINING THE IMPORTANCE OF A FULL SOCIAL LEARNING MODEL IN THE VIRTUAL WORLD Thomas J. Holt et al. Journal of Crime and Justice Volume 33, 2010 - Issue 2 Journal: Victims & Offenders  An International Journal of Evidence-based Research, Policy, and Practice Dark WEB:  START HERE Wikipedia: Dark Web https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dark_web Excerpt:  The dark web is the World Wide Web content that exists on darknets, overlay networks that use the Internet but require specific software, configurations, or authorization to access. The dark web forms a small part of the deep web, the part of the Web not indexed by web search engines, although sometimes the term deep web is mistakenly used to refer specifically to the dark web. The darknets which constitute the dark web include small, friend-to-friend peer-to-peer networks, as well as large, popular networks like Tor, Freenet, I2P, and Riffle operated by public organizations and individuals. Users of the dark web refer to the regular web as Clearnet due to its unencrypted nature. The Tor dark web may be referred to as onionland, a reference to the network's top- level domain suffix .onion and the traffic anonymization technique of onion routing. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dark_web ARTICLES - LINKS AARP (2018/09/04)  Is My Identity on the Dark Web?  Deep within the internet is a secretive place where criminals buy and sell your private data. By Doug Shadel with Neil Wertheimer, AARP Bulletin, September 4, 2018 https://www.aarp.org/money/scams-fraud/info-2018/what-is-the-dark-web.html Durango Colorado Investigators Into Dark Web (2018) [article also in Police Abuse/Info-Colorado] https://durangoherald.com/articles/219599 Excerpt: Detective Josh Newman of Durango PD looks over dark web.  Identity theft, child pornography among top targets for detectives. Forbes: (2016/06/28) The Dark Web is still a huge difficult problem https://www.forbes.com/sites/timsparapani/2016/06/28/the-dark-web-is-still-a-huge-difficult- problem/#3816568b65b1 Deep Web Sites dot com:  (2017/06/19) Careless hack in Mexico reveals customers of NSO Group; A 1$ Billion Dollar Spyware Company https: //www dot deepweb-sites dot com/careless-hack-mexico-reveals-customers-nso-group-1-billion-dollar- spyware-company/ Have you ever heard about the NSO Group? The famous professional spyware maker group based in Israeli who sells them to government organizations around the globe. Lately they were been on the news due to the sophisticated iphone hacking tool which hacked the iphone with a single text message. But today the name came up when one of its customers in Mexico did the absolute sloppy way of hacking the phones of 15 journalists, human rights activists and few scientists. Updates: 2020/05/07 Cybercrime section moved from River Gold and added to Dark/Deep Web section; Page started 10/21/2018