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Iraq (page one) US Invasion of Iraq & Beyond
INDEX OF THIS SECTION Iraq-Page One (here)    Iraq-Page Two      Iraq-Page Three      Iraq-Page Four-Links  See also:  Islamic Resources   Islamo-Fascism PAGE ONE (here) 1-BOOKS 2-TERMINOLOGY (BRIEF) Common Weapons and Equipment at least up through Operation Iraqi Freedom Bombs, Explosives      IEDs  (also VBIEDs)    EFPs      RPGs    Air Vehicles     Apaches    Chinooks     Black Hawks    (also see UAVs like RQ-7 Shadow)     Kiowa Light Helicopters Tanks, Vehicles     Abrams     Armored Security Vehicles     Bradleys     Humvees     MRAPS     Strykers     Tech Assisted Reconnaisance, Insurgent/Bomb Deterrence Unmanned Tech    UAVs     EODs  Army Levels Top to Bottom:  Corps     Division     Brigade or Regiment     Battalion     Company or Battery or Troop     Squad    3-OPERATIONS    Operation Desert Shield and Storm      Operation Iraqi Freedom     Operation New Dawn     Operation Inherent Resolve     4-BATTLES, ENCOUNTERS-INCIDENTS IN HIGH INTENSITY AREAS Battles Fallujah Fallujah/OIF (Op. Iraqi Freedom)/ Battles 1&2      Fallujah- US Marine Death Dealers Incidents Ambush and/or Abductions 2006/06/16   Two abducted near the village of Mufaraji near Baghdad 2007/05/11/12 - Three Abducted near Triangle of Death area south of Baghdad - 10th Mountain Division, 2nd Brigade Combat Team Drawdown Period (p. 2) Criminal Incident on part of USA (p. 2) 2006/06 101st Airborne Division’s 502nd Infantry Regiment PAGE TWO 5-TROOP MISCONDUCT 6-IRAN-IRAQ-USA Iran-Iraq-USA:  Iranian proxy or direct warfare in Iraq against Americans, Sunni-Shiite issues with Iranian link, Coalition forces, Weaponry 7-INJURIES (ALSO VETERANS ISSUES) PTSD moved to separate page Afghanistan v. Iraq/Stressors etc Fallujah/PTSD Victims (Marlboro Marine, Tan Mai) 8-DEATHS 9-UNITED KINGDOM INVOLVEMENT IRAQ, OTHER ALLIES (Afghanistan and Iraq) 10-SOME MENTIONED DIVISIONS 11-SOME MENTIONED NAMES 12-IRAQ, After Operation Enduring Freedom Shifts to Secularism in Mosul (2018) 13- VERY BRIEF HISTORY OF IRAQ --------------------------------------------- 1-BOOKS (2012) The Endgame: The Inside Story of the Struggle for Iraq, from George W. Bush to Barack Obama.  By Michael R. Gordon and General Bernard E. Trainor. Note by RG/PF: Boo is recommended. Good as a resource using the index and maps.  Didn’t care for the sections covering SOFA later in the book, felt it was tedious.  Bolger, the author below, gets only brief (although not negative) coverage on a few pages including the drawdown period.  Kershaw (listed elsewhere in this section) positively commented on by the author(s) regarding his tactical abilities. (2014) Why We Lost: A General’s Inside Account of the Iraq and Afghanistan WarsBy Daniel P. Bolger.  Note by RG/PF: Book is recommended.Bolger is telling us that he feels he is partly to blame for the lack of success in both Iraq and Afghanistan.  He gives a quick overview of  Desert Storm and buildup to 9/11 by covering two embassies being bombed, Mogadishu, USS Cole bombing by Al Qaeda; his is one of the best descriptions of what actually happened the day of 9/11 I have seen so far. Update on reading book: 2020/02/19 I am still reading Bolger’s book; have gotten through the first part of Afghanistan, the full section on Iraq and am in the second and final section on Afghanistan. (2008) War journal : My five years in Iraq.  By  Richard Engel. Note by RG/PF: Book is recommended, but watch for some signs of possible yellow journalism.  It is encouraged you read up on Engel and see what critics say about him and his work.  Engel embedded with different branches of the military; stayed longer in Iraq than many journalists; experienced severe repeated bombings in Baghdad, some of which almost got him in places like his hotel room; as part of this, he saw things like large bombed out craters from suicide truck bombings and falling body parts.  When reading about “falling faces”, like after one such bombing event, the second story triggered a suspicion in this reader he might be exaggerating or embellishing for dramatic effect, which put me on alert about the veracitiy and validity of the entire book.  Falling skulls with parts of faces yes, but faces peeled off intact seems unlikely, although I have no direct experience.  It’s possible he meant something else.  One of the face encounters had to do with a face falling off the ceiling to the area near him.   Although this might seem trivial - exploded body parts are sad and gross no matter - we need to have the feeling Engel was not embellishing with a sick sense of humor for dramatic effect, and to sell copy.  Beyond this concern, I recommend reading the book and checking his resources, as well as reading up on the man himself from other observers, reviewers and critics.  I believe he might be part Jewish which made being in Iraq even more dangerous for himself.  He apparently lost a marriage over his long stays in Iraq. He also lost at least one female friend whose vehicle was bombed near the Iraq, airport, as I recall it.  He felt more respect for the Marine approach than the Army one, feeling there was more no-nonsense professionalism in battle there and maybe less time in the FOBs.  Having read diverse materials on the Army, I am not so sure this is a fair measure of that branch of the military, but apparently FOB cloistering occurred among some and at certain points, especially during the earlier post-Saddam years.  Engel offers some observations about too much time wasted on trying to create a post Saddam democracy, attention diverted to bureacracy and not enough to war zone securing. (2012) From Kabul to Baghdad and Back : the U.S. at war in Afghanistan and IraqBy John R. Ballard, David W. Lamm, and John K. Wood Note from RG/PF: The book largely shows how by running two theaters of war largely along parallel lines, Afghanistan lost out in terms of attention, resource and military dedication from US, deferred to NATO with its various problems, and national as well as global attention.  Please note that Bolger’s book also compares to the two operations.  At least as of time of book publishing, authors  Ballard was dean of faculty at National War College and the other two  Lamm and Wood were affiliated with Near East South Asia Center for Strategic Studies at National Defense University in Washington.   (2019) Prisoner: my 544 days in an Iranian prison--solitary confinement, a sham trial, high-stakes diplomacy, and the extraordinary efforts it took to get me out.  By Jason Rezaian.  (Not read yet-included in Iraq section because of mixed battle zones/tensions between USA, Iran and Iraq) (2019) The warriors of Anbar : the Marines who crushed Al Qaeda : the greatest untold story of the Iraq War.  By Ed  Darack (Not read yet - looks interesting) (2009) None Left Behind: The 10th Mountain Division and the Triangle of Death. By Charles W. Sasser.  Not from RG/PF: Book is recommended. The main points are I know someone who was in this Division who was maimed in 2007.  I read the book because of that and with it in mind.  The author Sasser was a Vietnam Vetearan and author of other military related books.  He fleshes out the lives of the troops from New York to Iraq and back.  We gain an understanding of leaders and casualties in their struggle to control Malibu, a particularly gruesome and dangerous small stretch of road south of Baghdad.  The book is a mix of fiction and non-fiction, with fiction where he fills in blank spots missing from the record with his version of  a likely feeling for personalities and conversations.  There are ample pictures and more detailed information of what happened during the ambush that killed five, with three missing in action for awhile.  Those men are mentioned in this Iraq section.  We are informed one precognitive event and other paranormal feeling ones (coincidental, precognitive-like).  I did not expect this latter about the story, but it did not surprise me, because I had been feeling something along these lines around the man I spoke with and around the situation, as if drawn into the story by something.) (2010/07) Operation Iraqi Freedom US Army : Abrams, Bradley and Stryker. By Andy Renshaw 2-TERMINOLOGY - BRIEF Common Weapons and Equipment at least up through the end of Operation Iraqi Freedom Weapons    IEDs  (also VBIEDs)    EFPs      RPGs       Air Vehicles     Apaches    Chinooks     Black Hawks     Tanks, Vehicles     Abrams     Armored Security Vehicles     Bradleys     Humvees     MRAPS     Strykers    Tech Assisted Reconnaisance, Insurgent/Bomb Deterrence Unmanned Tech   UAVs     EODs  Army Levels Top to Bottom:  Corps     Division     Brigade or Regiment     Battalion     Company or Battery or Troop     Squad  UAVs  UNMANNED TECHNOLOGY https colon //en dot wikipedia dot org/wiki/UAVs_in_the_U.S._military  The military role of unmanned aircraft systems is growing at unprecedented rates. In 2005, tactical- and theater-level unmanned aircraft alone had flown over 100,000 flight hours in support of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom, in which they are organized under Task Force Liberty in Afghanistan and Task Force ODIN in Iraq. Rapid advances in technology are enabling more and more capability to be placed on smaller airframes, which is spurring a large increase in the number of Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (SUAS) being deployed on the battlefield. The use of SUAS in combat is so new that no formal DoD wide reporting procedures have been established to track SUAS flight hours. As the capabilities grow for all types of UAS, nations continue to subsidize their research and development, leading to further advances and enabling them to perform a multitude of missions. UAS no longer only perform intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance missions, although this still remains their predominant type. Their roles have expanded to areas including electronic attack, drone strikes, suppression or destruction of enemy air defense, network node or communications relay, combat search and rescue, and derivations of these themes. These UAS range in cost from a few thousand dollars to tens of millions of dollars, with aircraft ranging from less than https colon //en dot wikipedia dot org/wiki/UAVs_in_the_U.S._military EODS    EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL https://www.iimef.marines.mil/News-Releases/Article/565927/bombs-away-eod-disposes-of-explosive-threats/ Excerpt: MARINE CORPS BASE CAMP LEJEUNE, NC -- Thick gray smoke filled the air after the loud bang. But, don’t worry; explosive ordnance disposal technicians actually produced the blast to make the area safer.  Marines from EOD Company, 8th Engineer Support Battalion, participated in their end of the year field training exercise Dec. 8-17, 2014, aboard Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, combining everything they’ve learned throughout the year into one final exercise. EOD techs practiced dealing with mock-improvised explosive devises, unexploded ordnance, and chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear explosives. WEAPONS EFP’s     An explosively formed penetrator (EFP), also known as an explosively formed projectile, a self-forging warhead, or a self-forging fragment, is a special type of shaped charge designed to penetrate armor effectivey (Wikipedia/Explosively Formed Penetrator) Military Times (2015/07/14) Iran linked to deaths of 500 US Troops in Iraq and Afghanistan.  By Andre DeGrandpre and Andrew Tilghman https://www.militarytimes.com/news/pentagon-congress/2015/07/14/iran-linked-to-deaths-of-500-u-s-troops-in-iraq- afghanistan Names of Import in this article:  Senator Tom Cotton (Army), Republican from Arkansas, and an Army veteran Infantry Iraq and Afghanistan;  Joseph Dunford (Marines) Marine Corps General who [was] Obama's nominee to be chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff; David "Bo" Bolgiano (Army), a retired Army Special Forces officer who deployed to Iraq in 2006 and 2007 with the Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization; Gen. Lloyd Austin (Army) a top US commander in the Middle East EFP’s-Excerpt: "The big EFPs from Iran were fairly easy to identify because of the metallurgy involved and the copper plate formation," he said. "We had beyond-a-reasonable-doubt proof that Iran was the main supplier of the copper-plate EFPs," said Bolgiano.  Troops referred to them as "IEDs," but that's not completely accurate, Bolgiano said.  "Improvised is a little bit misleading because it makes it sound like a basement bomb-maker, and that was not the case. The shaped charges, the copper plates, the components were anything but unsophisticated. They were designed and at the level anything that any other non-Western government would have," Bolgiano said.  Photo of EFP damage of Humvee: Picture of bombed/back end destroyed/burning/smoking Humvee: “A U.S. military vehicle burns near Samarra, 95 kilometers (60 miles) north of Baghdad, Iraq, Wednesday, April 18, 2007. A roadside bomb went off next to an American military convoy, damaging one Humvee, local police said. Eyewitnesses reported casualties among U.S. troops https://www.militarytimes.com/news/pentagon-congress/2015/07/14/iran-linked-to-deaths-of-500-u-s-troops-in-iraq- afghanistan/ IEDs  Improvised Explosive Device; VBIEDs IEDs: An improvised explosive device (IED) is a bomb constructed and deployed in ways other than in conventional military action. ... In the second Iraq War, IEDs were used extensively against US-led invasion forces and by the end of 2007 they had become responsible for approximately 63% of coalition deaths in Iraq.  There is quite a bit on the Wikipedia page listed below. Animals, robots, boats, anti-personnel (ie shrapnel that scatters like a bb gun spray, etc), biochemical aspects. (Wikipedia-https colon//en dot wikipedia dot org/wiki/Improvised_explosive_device) VBIEDs: These are IEDs on vehicles: Excerpt from Wikipedia:A car bomb , lorry bomb , or truck bomb , also known as a vehicle-borne improvised explosive device ( VBIED ), [1] is an improvised explosive device placed inside a car or other vehicle and then detonated . Car bombs can be roughly divided into two main categories: those used primarily to kill the occupants of the vehicle (often as an assassination ) and those used as a means to kill, injure or damage people and buildings outside the vehicle. https colon//en dot wikipedia dot org/wiki/Car_bomb RPGs Rocket Propelled Grenade; there is a history over time regarding the development and uses of this.  Largely to be held on the shoulder and directed against tanks, an earlier variation was used in Vietnam. Photo of a Shiite Iraqi male carrying an RPG in Iraq in 8/7/2004; Photo of a shoulder held anti-tank launcher M136 ATR: https://www.britannica.com/technology/RPG-7 Excerpt: Other countries also developed small shoulder-held recoilless launchers firing shaped-charge warheads. Some of them, such as the American AT4, came preloaded and were designed to be discarded after firing. AIR VEHICLES Apaches    Chinooks     Black Hawks    (also see UAVs like RQ-7 Shadow)     Kiowa Light Helicopters Apache  [Photo Right AH-64 Apache] Wikipedia List of Aviation Shootdowns and Accidents During Iraq War https //en wikipedia org/wiki/List_of_aviation_shootdowns_and_accidents_during_the_Iraq_War 2003 Najaf Excerpt: Despite this failed mission, the Army insists the Apache was indispensable during the war, providing critical close air support for ground troops engaged in combat and armed reconnaissance by helping to destroy Iraqi armor and other key equipment lurking on the edges of the battlefield. “Our Apaches did great for us,” said Maj. Gen. David H. Petraeus, commander of the 101st Airborne Division, during a briefing after the war. “We were flexible and adaptable in the way that we used them.” https //www airforcemag com/article/1003najaf/ Chinook.  [Photo Left: CH-47 Chinook] Afghanistan war logs: US covered up fatal Taliban missile strike on Chinook Surface-to-air strike over Helmand shows Taliban had strong anti-aircraft capabilities earlier than previously though https://www.theguardian.com/world/2010/jul/25/afghanistan-taliban-missile-strike-chinook The US military covered up a reported surface-to-air missile strike by the Taliban that shot down a Chinook helicopter over Helmand in 2007 and killed seven soldiers, including a British military photographer, the war logs show. VEHICLES Book (2010/07) OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM US ARMY: Abrams, Bradley and Stryker By Andy Renshaw (also listed in Books) Some general info on Abrams, Bradleys, Strykers etc MWI do USMA do edu Light, Mobile, and Many: Rethinking the Future of Armor https://mwi.usma.edu/light-mobile-many-rethinking-future-armor/ Technology Review dot com How Technology Failed in Iraq The Iraq War (2003) was supposed to be a preview of the new U.S. military: a light, swift force that relies as much on sensors and communications networks as on heavy armor and huge numbers. But once the shooting started, technology fell far short of expectations. by David TalbotNov 1, 2004 https://www.technologyreview.com/s/403319/how-technology-failed-in-iraq/ Excerpt:  Ultimately, some 10,000 vehicles and 300,000 coalition troops rumbled across the sandy berm at the Kuwaiti border, 500 kilometers from Baghdad. Desert highways crawled with columns of Abrams tanks, Bradley fighting vehicles, armored personnel carriers, tank haulers, Humvees, and of course, fuel tankers to slake the fleet’s nine-million-liter daily demand for fuel. https://www.technologyreview.com/s/403319/how-technology-failed-in-iraq/ Abrams  These are tanks 1980s onward until they became replaced by guided missile tanks.  They were used in Desert Storm and beyond.  See Abrams’s  M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 1982-1992 by Steve Zaloga and Peter Sarson and M1 Abrams in action by Jim Mesko. The Fulda Gap 2018/01/09  The M1 Abrams and Iraq. By Aram S https://www.thefuldagap.com/2018/01/09/the-m1-abrams-and-iraq/ Excerpt: The tank, once thought to be nearly invincible, has absolutely begun to show its age and vulnerability to newer, more advanced anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) systems….[On Operation Enduring Freedom]…by the time the invasion of Iraq came about on March 19, 2003, the most advanced version of the Abrams fielded was designated the M1A2SEP1. These tanks featured upgraded armor and electrical systems, a new cooling system, and modernized sensors/sights. However, the majority of tanks deployed in 2003 were of the M1A2 variety, which had been introduced first in 1986. Unfortunately for the US military, this generational difference in vehicles would prove deadly. While no Abrams tanks were reportedly destroyed in action by enemy fire, at least 530 were damaged so heavily that they had to be returned to the US for repairs (during the period 2003 – 2009). This staggering number of damaged vehicles, compared with the number lost during Desert Storm, can be attributed to a number of issues. First, the occupation of Iraq lasted far longer than the Gulf War did. Second, the insurgents in Iraq used massive roadside bombs for their attacks, which often disabled tanks (as opposed to outright destroying them). Finally, the advent of roadside bombs with explosively formed penetrator (EFP) warheads meant that explosives found lying around Iraq (leftovers from the both wars) could be turned into deadly anti-tank weapons. https://www.thefuldagap.com/2018/01/09/the-m1-abrams-and-iraq/ [extracted from internet on 2020/02/02] Bradleys - Armored fighting vehicle Wikipedia https://en dot wikipedia dot org/wiki/Bradley_Fighting_Vehicle Excerpt: The Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV) is a fighting vehicle platform of the United States manufactured by BAE Systems Land & Armaments, formerly United Defense. It was named after U.S. General Omar Bradley. The Bradley is designed to transport infantry or scouts with armor protection, while providing covering fire to suppress enemy troops and armored vehicles. The several Bradley variants include the M2 Bradley infantry fighting vehicle and the M3 Bradley cavalry fighting vehicle. The M2 holds a crew of three (a commander, a gunner, and a driver) along with six fully equipped soldiers. The M3 mainly conducts scout missions and carries two scout troopers in addition to the regular crew of three, with space for additional BGM-71 TOW missiles. The Red River Army Depot in Texarkana, Texas, is the Center of Industrial Technical Excellence for the maintenance and repair of the Bradley system. During the Gulf War, M2 Bradleys destroyed more Iraqi armored vehicles than the M1 Abrams. A total of 20 Bradleys were lost—three by enemy fire and 17 due to friendly fire incidents; another 12 were damaged. https://en dot wikipedia dot org/wiki/Bradley_Fighting_Vehicle Humvees  “The Humvee was the American successor to the jeep…The downside of the Humvee is that, despite being a military vehicle, it was basically designed to be a non-combatant, providing mobility for forces behind the front lines…” (See Washpark Prophet Blogspot below for a good run-down of the Humvee subject.) Note from RG/PF:  The Humvee was used a long time.  Armor was added to the basic model.  However, they just simply did not cut it.  Many, many people died in them from a variety of explosions.  The military kept sending people out in them.  When any combat veteran tells you he was hit by an IED or EFP in the road while in a vehicle, consider asking, “What kind of vehicle were you riding in at the time?” Also in EFPs section, there is a photo of a bombed Humvee at this link: https://www.militarytimes.com/news/pentagon-congress/2015/07/14/iran-linked-to- deaths-of-500-u-s-troops-in-iraq-afghanistan/ Army tech dot com (2014) The end of an icon rise and fall of the Humvee https://www.army-technology.com/features/featureend-of-an-icon-the-rise-and-fall-o  [the link doesn’t seem to work] Excerpt:  For nearly 30 years the Humvee has been the workhorse of militaries across the globe. It has achieved iconic status and is now one of the most recognisable vehicles on the planet. But after criticisms that it can no longer protect troops in combat, the US Army is planning to replace it. Is this the end of the Humvee’s story, or is there more to come for this symbol of US military might? CBS (2004/05/06) Despite Upgrades, Humvee Deaths Up https://www.cbsnews.com/news/despite-upgrades-humvee-deaths-up Excerpt: Coming on the heels of insurgent violence in Iraq on Wednesday, a new report says that despite stronger armor on over 50,000 Humvees and other military vehicles throughout Iraq and Afghanistan, roadside bombs have killed more U.S. troops this year based on Pentagon records.  Most are dying in their Humvees, USA Today reports, as insurgents plant more powerful bombs and use different triggering methods to evade U.S. countermeasures, experts tell the newspaper. According to Pentagon casualty reports, 67 U.S. troops have died this year in roadside bomb attacks on their Humvees, and another 22 troops were killed when IEDs hit other military vehicles, including more heavily armored tanks and troop carriers. https://www.cbsnews.com/news/despite-upgrades-humvee-deaths-up Marine Corps Times dot com (2017/11/21) Why the hell are Marines still driving Humvees? https colon //www dot marinecorpstimes dot com/news/your-marine-corps/2017/11/21/why-the-hell-are-marines-still- driving-humvees Wash Park Prophet Blogspot (2006) Humvee Problem https colon //washparkprophet dot blogspot dot com/2006/03/humvee-problem.html Note from PF/RG: this was added here in more depth than normal because of all the deaths and injuries in Humvees in Iraq and elsewhere.  It gives the background of Humvees, why it was a preferred vehicle for many years, and its weaknesses. Excerpt:  The Humvee was the American successor to the jeep. It entered service in 1985, as one of the last major military systems purchased in the Cold War, and was used first in the First Gulf War under the administration of the elder George Bush, then in Kosovo and Bosnia and Somalia during the Clinton administration, and is now being widely used in the Iraq War and in Afghanistan during the administration of George W. Bush. The military has tens of thousands of them, if not hundreds of thousands of them, and there are about a dozen different variants of them.  When the Humvee was first designed, the main focus was on its off road capabilities. There is probably no four wheeled vehicle that rivals it in this respect. Its low center of gravity, wide frame, four wheel drive and other features allow it to climb steep hills (60% grade), drive with a right side much higher than its left (40% grade), or visa versa, and its undercarriage is designed to give it exceptionally high clearance (16 inches) of rocks and tree stumps and debris that may be in its way, and ford shallow streams (30 inches in a standard configuration). In short, it is designed to be able to carry modest loads of cargo and troops anywhere tracked military vehicles, like tanks and Bradley fighting vehicles, could while getting fuel economy at about 12 mpg, which isn't great, but is far better than a tank, 0.5 mpg, or a Bradley, at about 1.5 mpg. (A Stryker gets about 6 mpg.) The downside of the Humvee is that, despite being a military vehicle, it was basically designed to be a non-combatant,  providing mobility for force[s] behind the front lines in a European conflict with the Soviet Union. As one commentator puts it, "'just getting around and doing work, particularly in quieter areas' is a role concept that becomes deeply questionable for a military vehicle." Civilian vehicles without extreme off roads capabilities can do that in areas that are genuinely behind the front lines, like military bases away from combat zones, for less money with greater performance.  But, a vehicle that isn't even armored enough to stop shrapnel and ordinary firearm rounds, and has no design features to protect its occupants from land mines is ill suited for use in a combat zone, even when the opposition has already been stripped of heavy weapons like aircraft, tanks and heavy artillery.This is particularly a concern as the roles of the Humvee have expanded because the military has a great many of them. While it was well designed to serve as a behind the front lines cargo/troop carrier, or shelter carrier, and is reasonably useful as a field ambulance, its design its less suited to its roles as a patrol vehicle and automatic weapons platform, which implies a vehicle likely to get into firefights, as an anti- tank missile carrier, and hence very near enemy tanks, or as a light howitzer carrier, and hence operating close to the battlefield and possibly facing return fire. In the conflicts where it has been used militarily, its role as a automatic weapons platform on patrol duty in urban or hostile territories, for which it wasn't designed, has been particularly in demand, and while there has been relatively little occasion for Humvees to be used in the extreme off road environments for which it was designed. Another problem with the Humvee is its size. While two or three of them can fit on a C-130 intratheater transport plane, they can not be carried on a V-22, or internally by any American military helicopter, and are difficult for all but the largest of American military helicopters to carry externally. This means that troops delivered by helicopter have to walk or use some other vehicle once they are dropped off.  These are the problems that are driving the choice of successors to the Humvee. Vehicles can be designed to better address these problems, and it will probably take three different kinds of vehicles to address the problems that have arisen with it. Armor can provide protection against enemy gunfire in firefights, and many existing Humvees have been armored to address this issue. But, the Humvee wasn't designed to carry the kind of weight that armor creates, so armored Humvees face suspension problems and other maintenance difficulties. Improvised armor is often not terribly good at protecting occupants. And, even relatively ample, factory designed armor isn't sufficient to make a Humvee impervious to heavier weapons like anti-tank rounds and rocket propelled grenades (RPGs). https colon //washparkprophet dot blogspot dot com/2006/03/humvee-problem.html Wikipedia Humvee Replacement Process also gives some background of the history of the vehcle https colon //www dot army-technology dot com/features/featureend-of-an- icon-the-rise-and-fall-o M1117 Guardian - Armored Security Vehicle (ASV) Book US Army and Marine Corps MRAPs: Mine Resistant Ambush Protected Vehicles By Mike Guardia  See pages 19-20 on a good discussion on ASV’s https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M1117_Armored_Security_Vehicle Excerpt: The M1117 Guardian, also denoted Armored Security Vehicle (ASV), is an internal security vehicle based on the V-100 and V-150 Commando series of armored cars. It was developed in the late 1990s for service with the United States Military Police Corps.[2] The first prototypes appeared in February 1997 and serial production of the M1117 commenced between 1999 and early 2000.[2] The M1117 was one of the first American military vehicles to be built on a specialized mine-resistant hull, and after 2001 was adopted in increasing numbers as a direct response to the threat posed by improvised explosive devices to US forces in Iraq and Afghanistan.[3][4] Its armament consists of an Mk 19 grenade launcher and M2HB Browning machine gun, mounted in a turret similar to that used on the U.S. Marine Corps' Amphibious Assault Vehicle; and a M240H Medium Machine Gun mounted outside the gunner's hatch. The vehicle was utilized by American military police and convoy security units in Iraq and Afghanistan. It is a more heavily protected and heavily armed alternative to the armored Humvee which was not originally designed to be a protected fighting vehicle. In 2015 Textron Systems  rebranded the M1117 as the COMMANDO™ family of vehicles, bringing back the name of the vehicle from which the M1117 was derived.[5] https //en.wikipedia org/wiki/M1117_Armored_Security_Vehicle MRAPs 2007-2012  (Mine Resistant Ambush Protected) armored vehicles; Examples:  Force Protection Cougar H, International MaxxPro Wikepedia en dot wikipedia dot org › wiki › MRAP Excerpt: The United States Department of Defense MRAP program began in 2007 as a response to the increased threat of IEDs during the Iraq War. From 2007 until 2012, the MRAP program deployed more than 12,000 vehicles in the Iraq War and War in Afghanistan. Production of MRAP vehicles officially ended in 2012. [there is a photo of an MRAP at this link] en dot wikipedia dot org › wiki › MRAP Strykers,  Stryker Mobile Gun System (MGS); “The vehicle is named for two unrelated U.S. soldiers who posthumously received the Medal of Honor: Private First Class Stuart S. Stryker, who died in World War II, and Specialist Four Robert F. Stryker, who died in the Vietnam War.” It is a family of eight-wheeled armored fighting vehicles derived from the Canadian LAV III. Stryker vehicles are produced by General Dynamics Land Systems Canada for the United States Army. It has 4-wheel drive (8×4) and can be switched to all-wheel drive (8×8)(Wikipedia/Stryker) News Miner (2020/01/08) About 2,200 Fort Wainwright Stryker soldiers are in Iraq.  By Alistair Gardiner. http://www.newsminer.com/news/local_news/about-fort-wainwright-stryker-soldiers-are- in-iraq/article_8f27c092-31f1-11ea-af15-cbfa5e8cd596.html Popular Mechanics (2009/10/01) Stryker Crews in Iraq Rally to Defend Their Rides: Field Report.  By Joe Pappalardo https://www.popularmechanics.com/military/a2696/4253991/ Excerpt: The MGS has the same body as nine other Stryker variants, so it shares design flaws common to them all, including vulnerable wheels, inadequate armor and cramped operating conditions. Other complaints specific to the MGS variant revolve around computer system freezes, and instability caused by its large, tanklike main gun. https://www.popularmechanics.com/military/a2696/4253991/ 3-OPERATIONS -  IRAQ CONFLICT Desert Storm/Shield The Gulf War  began August 2, 1990 ended February 28, 1991 United States deployed a total of 697,000 troops. 143 were killed in action (96 Army soldiers, 22 Marines, 20 airmen 20 and 5 sailors). This means 0.02 % of deployed United States soldiers were killed in action during the Gulf War. objective of the operation desert storm was to ensure sustainable stability and security of Saudi Arabia and the Gulf of Persia. The Operation Desert Storm was also intended to help safeguard and secure the lives of the Americans who lived in these areas. The Iraq Conflict in general intro  (2003–2011; 2014-2017) Wikipedia https ://en dotwikipedia dot org/wiki/Iraq_conflict_(2003%E2%80%93present) The Iraqi conflict (2003–present) is a long-running armed conflict that began with the 2003 invasion of Iraq by a United States-led coalition that toppled the government of Saddam Hussein. However, the conflict continued as an insurgency emerged to oppose the occupying forces and the post-invasion Iraqi government.[1] The United States officially withdrew from the country in 2011, but became re-involved in 2014 at the head of a new coalition. This intervention ended in 2017 with the loss of Islamic State territory in Iraq. https: //en dot wikipedia dot org/wiki/Iraq_conflict_(2003%E2%80%93present) CNN (2013/10/30) Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation New Dawn Fast Facts (CNN Library) https://www.cnn.com/2013/10/30/world/meast/operation-iraqi-freedom-and-operation-new-dawn-fast-facts/index.html December 15, 2011 - American troops lower the flag of command that flies over Baghdad, officially ending the US military mission in Iraq.  December 18, 2011 - The last US troops in Iraq cross the border into Kuwait. https://www.cnn.com/2013/10/30/world/meast/operation-iraqi-freedom-and-operation-new-dawn-fast-facts/index.html Operation Desert Shield and Storm (Gulf War) The Atlantic 2016/01 25 years since first gulf war https://www.theatlantic.com/photo/2016/01/operation-desert-storm-25-years-since-the-first-gulf-war/424191 Operation Iraqi Freedom/OIF (Started March 2003)  History dot com Bush announces launch Operation Iraqi Freedom https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/bush-announces-the-launch-of-operation-iraqi-freedom Politico (2017/03): Bush announces launch operation Iraqi Freedom March 19, 2003 https://www.politico.com/story/2017/03/bush-announces-launch-of-operation-iraqi-freedom-march-19-2003-236134 CNN  (2013/10/30) Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation New Dawn Fast Facts https://www.cnn.com/2013/10/30/world/meast/operation-iraqi-freedom-and-operation-new-dawn-fast-facts/index.htm February 27, 2009 - President Barack Obama announces a date for the end of US combat operations in Iraq: August 31, 2010. June 30, 2009 - US troops pull back from Iraqi cities and towns and Iraqi troops take over the responsibility for security operations. However, US troops remain in the country to continue combat operations and patrols in rural areas. August 19, 2010 - The last US combat brigade leaves Iraq. A total of 52,000 US troops remain in the country. September 1, 2010 - Operation Iraqi Freedom is renamed Operation New Dawn to reflect the reduced role US troops will play in securing the country. https://www.cnn.com/2013/10/30/world/meast/operation-iraqi-freedom-and-operation-new-dawn-fast-facts/index.htm Operation New Dawn (Start 2010) Army dot mil  Operation New Dawn https://www.army.mil/article/44526/operation_new_dawn CNN (2013/10/30) On 17 February 2010, U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates announced that as of 1 September, the name "Operation Iraqi Freedom" would be replaced by "Operation New Dawn". https://www.cnn.com/2013/10/30/world/meast/operation-iraqi-freedom-and-operation-new-dawn-fast-facts/index.html Operation Inherent Resolve (OIR) (Start 2014) American-led intervention in Iraq (2014–present) https: colon //en dot wikipedia dot org/wiki/American-led_intervention_in_Iraq_(2014%E2%80%93present) Wikipedia Operation Inherent Resolve https://en dot wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Inherent_Resolve (OIR) is the U.S. military's operational name for the military intervention against the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIL, in the vernacular, Daesh),[106] including both the campaign in Iraq and the campaign in Syria. Since 21 August 2016, the U.S. Army's XVIII Airborne Corps has been responsible for Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve (CJTF-OIR) https: colon en dot wikipedia dot org/wiki/Operation_Inherent_Resolve Inherent Resolve dot mi: http://www.inherentresolve.mil Note from PF/RG: Please notice the symbol for Inherent Resolve Guardian: (2014/10/16) Operation Inherent Resolve ISIS War Name https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/oct/16/operation-inherent-resolve-isis-war-name-us-military La Times (2014/10/15) Operation Inherent Resolve ISIS http://www.latimes.com/world/worldnow/la-fg-operation-inherent-resolve-isis-20141015-story.html 4-BATTLES, ENCOUNTERS-INCIDENTS IN HIGH INTENSITY AREAS See also-HONORS Iraq related Battles Fallujah See also Endgame-p.590-2009 Mosul Incident Karcher seriously injured - veteran of 2004 Fallujah battle - in Incidents below “Fallujah. The word alone conjures up grim images of Iraq’s most intense urban combat, of insurgent snipers and dark narrow streets riddled with explosives, of militants lying in wait for days to kill Americans with assault rifles and grenades.”--Christian Science Monitor (2014) See below First Battle of Fallujah (Operation Vigilant Resolve) 2004 Wikipedia First Battle of Fallujah https colon //en dot wikipedia dot org/wiki/First_Battle_of_Fallujah Excerpt: The First Battle of Fallujah, also known as Operation Vigilant Resolve, was an operation to root out extremist elements of Fallujah as well as an attempt to apprehend the perpetrators of the killing of four U.S. contractors in March 2004.  The chief catalyst for the operation was the highly publicized killing and mutilation of four Blackwater USA private military contractors,[9] and the killings of five American soldiers in Habbaniyah a few days earlier.  The battle polarized public opinion within Iraq. 82nd Airborne Division first entered the city on 23 April 2003, and approximately 150 members of Charlie Company occupied al-Qa'id primary… https colon //en dot wikipedia dot org/wiki/First_Battle_of_Fallujah Second Battle of Fallujah (Al-Fajr, Phantom Fury)  2004 Wikipedia Second Battle of Fallujah https colon//en dot wikipedia dot org/wiki/Second_Battle_of_Fallujah Excerpt: The Second Battle of Fallujah—code-named Operation Al-Fajr (Arabic: [sic] "the dawn") and Operation Phantom Fury—was a joint American, Iraqi, and British offensive in November and December 2004, considered the highest point of conflict in Fallujah during the Iraq War. It was led by the U.S. Marine Corps against the Iraqi insurgency stronghold in the city of Fallujah and was authorized by the U.S.-appointed Iraqi Interim Government. The U.S. military called it "some of the heaviest urban combat U.S. Marines have been involved in since the Battle of Huế City in Vietnam in 1968."The second battle was the bloodiest battle of the entire Iraq War,[20] and is notable for being the first major engagement of the Iraq War fought solely against insurgents rather than the forces of the former Ba'athist Iraqi government, which was deposed in 2003. https colon//en dot wikipedia dot org/wiki/Second_Battle_of_Fallujah Fallujah- US Marine Death Dealers Christian Science Monitor (2014/11/07) Fallujah Anniversary Tracking down the US Marine Death Dealers. By Scott Peterson https://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Military/2014/1107/Fallujah-anniversary-Tracking-down-the-US-Marine-Death-Dealer Incidents - Encounters in High Intensity Areas See also HONORS/Triangle of Death Incident involving Atkins/Honors-Posthumous/10th Mtn Division Ambush and/or Abductions; Includes Suicide Bomb Encounters Andy Bacevich Jr. - 2007-May 13 in a suicide bomb attack of Walpole, Mass.; assigned to the 3rd Battalion, 8th Cavalry Regiment, 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 1st Cavalry Division, Fort Hood, Texas; died May 13 in Balad, Iraq, of wounds sustained when an improvised explosive device detonated near his unit during combat patrol operations in Salah Ad Din Province, Iraq.c CBS (2007/05/16) War Critic’s son dies in Iraq https://www.cbsnews.com/news/war-critics-son-dies-in-iraq/ Editor and Publisher 2007/05/27 https://www.editorandpublisher.com/news/bacevich-on-failing-to-prevent-his-son-s-death-in-iraq/ Excerpt: Among the hundreds of messages that my wife and I have received, two bore directly on this question. Both held me personally culpable, insisting that my public opposition to the war had provided aid and comfort to the enemy. Each said that my son’s death came as a direct result of my antiwar writings.  This may seem a vile accusation to lay against a grieving father. But in fact, it has become a staple of American political discourse, repeated endlessly by those keen to allow President Bush a free hand in waging his war Menchaca and Tucker 2006 abduction at Checkpoint 12 miles south of Baghdad Summary: 2006/06/16  South of Baghdad, Kristian Menchaca and Thomas Tucker ambushed, captured, tortured and killed; dead bodies found, three miles from where they had been captured near the village of Mufaraji.  Another soldier was killed and several injured during the search.   Mujahedeen Shura Council, a group linked to Al Qaeda in Iraq, likely involved.  Another (David Babineau) killed at time of ambush.  The three had been manningan observation post (OP) guarding the mobile bridge, for 24 to 36 hours, with just one Humvee, the rest of their platoon a little under a mile away Wayback Web Archive Court Listener (2017/04/13) Foley v. Syrian Arab Republic https://web.archive.org/web/20190727032905/https://www.courtlistener.com/pdf/2017/04/13/foley_v._syrian_arab_republic.pdf Excerpt: This case arises from the deaths of three Americans—Laurence Michael Foley, Sr., Keith Matthew Maupin and Kristian Menchaca—in Iraq and Jordan between 2002 and 2006. Plaintiffs—the estates and family members of the deceased—allege that all three were killed by a terrorist organization led by Abu Mus’ab al-Zarqawi (the “Zarqawi Terrorist Organization”)….The Court finds that Syria provided material support to the Zarqawi Terrorist.  Organization throughout the relevant time period—roughly 2002 through 2006. During this period, Syria lent support to a number of terrorist groups by, among other things, providing them safe haven, weaponry, financial support, and even allowing them to open headquarters within Syria….One particularly significant way that Syria provided support to such groups was by allowing them to freely move through Syria and into neighboring countries, such as Iraq and Jordan, for the express purpose of killing Americans. Schenker T2-116-17; Ex. 54 (Expert Report of David Schenker), at 5 (“Syria was involved in a systematic process of moving Al Qaida fighters to Iraq”). This support was not hidden: Syria allowed the opening of a “special interest section” in downtown Damascus, directly across the street from the United States Embassy, where individuals could sign up and board a bus to Baghdad to “wage the jihad” against Americans. Schenker T2-134. Syrian border checkpoints would allow foreign insurgents to pass through freely, stamping their passports with phrases such as “volunteer for jihad.” https//web.archive.org/web/20190727032905/https://www.courtlistener.com/pdf/2017/04/13/foley_v._syrian_arab_republic.pdf Washington Post (2007/05/17) Report Says Soldiers Were Not Protected. By Lolita C. Baldor https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/05/17/AR2007051700493.html Fouty, Jimenez, Anzack 2007 Abduction 2007/05/11/12 - Triangle of Death area south of Baghdad - 7GI’s Ambushed - Bodies of Fouty and Jimenez found on 2008/07/08 with help of captured insurgents connected to the case Summary 10th Mountain Division, 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 31st Infantry Regiment, 4th Battalion, Company D. 7 GI’s ambushed; 4 executed; 3 abducted and killed; Fouty deemed tortured (apparently indicated by one forensics expert noted in at least one article) over 4 months before finally killed.  Clues and evidence scattered from close to further out.  2007/06 ID cards - Iraq safe house near Samarra. Names:  Three soldiers killed and one interpretor: SFC James David Connell Jr., aged 40;PFC Daniel Weston Courneya, aged 19; PFC Christopher Edward Murphy, aged 21;SGT Anthony Jason Schober, aged 23. Three U.S. soldiers were abducted/captured:PVT Byron Wayne Fouty, aged 19.SPC Alex Ramon Jimenez, aged 25; andPFC Joseph John Anzack Jr., aged 20; [On 2007/05/23  Anzack's body was pulled out of the Euphrates River, with a gunshot wound in the head and the Iraqi soldier-interpreter were killed New York Times (2007/05/15) Military Gives Details of Iraq Ambush of 7 G.I.s.  By Kirk Semple SEMPLE https://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/15/world/middleeast/15cnd-iraq.html?mtrref=www.google.com&assetType=REGIWAL Excerpt: The seven American soldiers involved in a deadly weekend ambush south of Baghdad were from the 10th Mountain Division, based in upstate New York, military officials announced today, as thousands of troops continued an intensive search for three of the soldiers, who disappeared and are presumed to have been kidnapped by Sunni Arab insurgents.  The military has not released the names of the seven soldiers, four of whom were killed. But officials announced that they were members of Company D, Fourth Battalion, 31st Infantry Regiment, Second Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division, which is based at Fort Drum in upstate New York. Families of the soldiers released the names of two of the dead,  Sgt. First Class James David Connell Jr., 40, of Lake City, Tenn., and Pfc. Daniel Courneya, 19, of Vermontville, Mich., according to The Associate Press. https://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/15/world/middleeast/15cnd-iraq.html?mtrref=www.google.com&assetType=REGIWAL Updates:  2020/06/12 Chinook and Apache photos added; Some material on Apache at Najaf in 2003; 2020/05/05-06 a variety of changes underway; the entire section was moved from River Gold; various links might not work as a result of the transition but are being worked on;  M1117 Armored Security Vehicle (ASV) added to list of vehicles along with photo; MRAP photo and MRAP material moved to right section (Vehicles) from where it had been misplaced in weapons; 2020/04/01 Allies section added to, addition of “Iraq and Afghanistan” for allies; Ballard et al quoted early post-9/11 coalition in Op. End. Freedom;  2020/03/29 edited some book material; 2020/02/21 added to Books sections comments on two books, incl. 10th Mtn Div.  No Man Left Behind. Updates:  2020/02/09 UAVs, EODs added with links active2020/02/02 Desert Storm added to; Abrams material added; Page Two split off from this Page One section. Incorporating Old System Abuse/Iraq material into this overall section. 2020/02/01 Humvee, Stryker info added to, links activated inside the section; 2020/01/31 Why We Lost, by Dan Bolger, added to Books; IED/VBIED and RPG sections added to; 2020/01/26 book (2010/07) Operation Iraqi Freedom US Army : Abrams, Bradley and Stryker. By An dy Renshaw; added; 2020/01/22 Added (2017/04/13) Foley v. Syrian Arab Republic to Battles/Abductions/Wayback Web Archive Court Listener-;2020/01/20 PTSD moved to own page, identified under Injuries on this page; Books-added No Man Left Behind; 2020/01/19 Baghdad nearby abduction-2006/06 incident added; 2020/01/18 refining of incidents/abductions; 2020/01/16; 2020/01/14-15 mostly adding links to topics and fleshing out books and links per subject; there has been, and will continue to be, topic restructuring;  2020/01/11; 2020/01/10; 2020/01/09 Page started
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