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Turfing
Also See Resources in Gangs/Cartels and how to stop Definition Turf War https://www.thefreedictionary.com/turf+war 1. a dispute between criminals or gangs over the right to operate within a particular area 2. any dispute in which one party seeks to obtain increased rights or influence Turfing generally uses insignia to identify a gang’s real or claimed sense of territory of an area.  It can also include insignia on people to indicate a form of membership to a gang which also includes turfing of an area.  It can include taking control of businesses in an area, or across strata inside a large corporation.  We often think of dog and cat scents marking territory.  Perhaps there is a deep-seated genetic connection between animals and humans in this matter, but regardless, gangs are basically saying: This is OURS.  We are the head honchos here.  This is our hunting ground.  Other gangs stay out. The people in this space our ours.  The buildings are ours.  The vehicles are ours. What goes on here is our business. We can also think of it as a type of chatter or communication, something that is noise that wants to break through other noise. We have all seen the men with tattoos over all their body.  Other insignia can include how clothes or hair are worn and a whole lot of other things.  Many times the insignia are out there, other times it’s a secret.  Some turn it all into something positive sooner or later, the language and ways finally goes somewhere real (to help humanity, to help people pull out of gangs, to reset the focus). Books Routledge Handbook of Graffiti and Street Art edited by Jeffrey Ian Ross Cholo Writing: Latino Gang Graffiti in Los Angeles Book by François Chastanet and Howard Gribble Gangs, Graffiti, and Violence: A Realistic Guide to the Scope and Nature of ... Book by Anthony Smith, Duane A. Leet, and George Rush Compliments of Chicagohoodz: The Art and Design of Chicago Street ... Book by Damen Vincenzo Corrado and James O'Connor Pocketguide to Gangs and Their Symbols: Street Gangs, Ethnic Gangs, Occult ... Book by Lou Savel DEA dot gov - pdf 2018/07  Slang Terms and Code Words A Reference for Law Enforcement Personnel https://www.dea.gov/sites/default/files/2018-07/DIR-022-18.pdf Insignia Utah Salt Lake City, Utah Board of Education Gang Signs, Symbols, Signals, Words and Conduct https://www.slcschools.org/board-of-education/policies/s-3/s-3-gang-signs-symbols-signals-words-and- conduct-prohibited/english/ Los Angeles LA PD Online How Are Gangs Identified http colon //www dot lapdonline dot org/la_gangs/content_basic_view/23468 Excerpt:  Most gang members are proud of their gang and freely admit their membership. Many display tattoos openly and dress in a style identifying their particular gang. Their personal belongings are frequently covered with graffiti and bear the gang’s logo and the member’s gang name.  Many individuals on the fringe of gang involvement are reluctant to identify themselves as gang members. They often state that their friends are gang members but they are not. However, rival gang members, shooting from a speeding car, do not make a distinction between a gang member and his associates.  Gangs share common characteristics such as the wearing of distinct clothing or using particular hand signs or signals. Although details will vary, the following overview provides general information about the identification of gang members (if outside the city of Los Angeles, check with your local law enforcement agency for current information): Graffiti. Gangs use graffiti to identify themselves and mark their gang’s "turf" or territory. They also use it to advertise the gang’s status or power and to declare their own allegiance to the gang. The graffiti may include the gang’s name, a member’s nickname, a declaration of loyalty, threats against rival gangs or a description of criminal acts in which the gang has been involved.  Gangs frequently gather in dark areas to avoid being seen. In these locations they will often drink, use narcotics, and deface property with graffiti.  Clothing. The uniform of Hispanic gangs is standard and easily recognizable. Most gang members adopt a basic style that includes white T-shirts, thin belts, baggy pants with split cuffs, a black or blue knit cap (beanie) or a bandana tied around the forehead similar to a sweat band. Black gang members are individualistic in their dress. Black gangs tend to identify themselves by adopting certain colors. The "Crips" identify themselves with the colors of blue or black or a combination of the two. "Blood" gangs generally use red accessories, such as caps or bandanas, to identify themselves. While clothing alone cannot positively determine membership in a street gang, color and style serve to identify each gang. Green can either mean the gang member is declaring neutrality for the moment or is a drug dealer. Black is worn by some Hispanic gangs and Heavy Metal Anglo gangs. Other common gang colors include brown or purple. Note: Some gangs are starting to change their clothing style by no longer wearing their colors in an effort to deceive law enforcement and conceal their gang affiliation. http://www.lapdonline.org/la_gangs/content_basic_view/23468 Border Between Gangs Turfing and Clustered Crimes University of California 2012/06/25   Math model shows crimes cluster gang turf borders.  By Meg Sullivan, UCLA https://www.universityofcalifornia.edu/news/math-model-shows-crimes-cluster-gang-turf-border Areas Chicago Chicago CBS Local 2019/12/06   Gangs Marking Turf In Avondale By Bending Street Signs, Again https://chicago.cbslocal.com/2019/12/06/gangs-marking-turf-in-avondale/ CHICAGO (CBS) — The street signs in an Avondale neighborhood are so mangled that drivers can’t see them, but that’s only the beginning. Neighbors tell CBS 2’s Tara Molina it’s more than vandalism–it’s a gang tag–and it’s not the first time. IPR 2018/03   Vagas Violence in Chicago:  How Turf Wars Lead to Violence in Chicago Robert Vargas outlines how fights for control create crime hot spots https://www.ipr.northwestern.edu/news/2018/vargas-violence-in-chicago.html Mexican Gangs Fox News 2011/05/23  Bloody Mexican Gangs Make It 'Official,' with Uniforms, Insignia.  By Kelley Beauca https://www.foxnews.com/world/bloody-mexican-gangs-make-it-official-with-uniforms-insignia New Mexico Albuq. Jrnl 2013/08/10 Turf at center of biker gang conflict in N.M..  By Jeff Proctor https://www.abqjournal.com/245116/turf-at-center-of-biker-gang-conflict-in-nm.html New Mexico has pretty much always been Bandidos country. But now there’s a challenge to the outlaw motorcycle gang’s decades-long stranglehold on supremacy here – something of a line in the sand – and law enforcement is watching closely to see whether it gets crossed. Albuquerque restaurant puts up sign banning gangs or ‘colors’ 2019/03/28   Restaurant puts up sign banning gangs or colors.  By Rebecca Atkins https://www.krqe.com/news/albuquerque-restaurant-puts-up-sign-banning-gangs-or-colors/ How Cartels Can “Expand Turf” and engage with more localized gangs: Example Univision 2016/12    From jail, El Chapo Guzmán is expanding his U.S. turf, DEA says The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration says the Sinaloa cartel's US operations have “matured.” It enjoys alliances with street gangs and has trimmed its crews.   ISAIAS ALVARADO https://www.univision.com/local/los-angeles-kmex/from-jail-el-chapo-guzman-is-expanding-his-u-s-turf-dea-says Updates 2020/04/12 Book section and books added; Albuq. Jrnl 2013/08/10Albuq. restaurant anti-graffiti added; information added including Utah Board of Education and LAPD Online Insignia; 2020/04/10 Turfing page started
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