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White Supremacy, Racial Divides
IN THIS SECTION   Comments   Problems With Media Distortion     White Backlash Against Civil Rights Narratives         History:   Trail of Tears/Indian Removal Campaigns by American Government     The Long Walk/Navajo Trail of Tears     Wounded Knee/South Dakota     Japanese Internment Camps in WW2 after Hawaii/Pearl Harbor bombing by Nazi-Connected Japanese      Ku Klux Klan    Articles:  Vagaries of Jews in South Africa and Israel    Cyber Racism     Racially Driven Genetic Testing COMMENTS This section highlights a few things about the divide between whites and non-whites in America. Note From PF:  Whenever the Southern Poverty Law Center is mentioned as a resource against right-wing hate crimes, be careful.  The group has several lawsuits going and has been investigated for its own types of corruption.  The Anti- Defamation League (ADL) used to support positive constructs against anti-semitism, but now is suspect, and there are indications it is cooperating with the SPLC.  When we find stories in suspected liberal sources like the Washington Post and The Guardian, please be mindful that there can be both overt and covert agendas supporting left-wing communism and socialism, as well as Islamic Extremism or other “ism’s.” HISTORY KKK At one point, the Ku Klux Klan had millions of adherents around the world.  The Republicans were the ones trying to fight discrimination.   There are many, many examples of white violence against black people in American history. History -  Ku Klux Clan https //www history com/topics/reconstruction/ku-klux-klan Excerpt:  Founded in 1865, the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) extended into almost every southern state by 1870 and became a vehicle for white southern resistance to the Republican Party’s Reconstruction-era policies aimed at establishing political and economic equality for blacks. Its members waged an underground campaign of intimidation and violence directed at white and black Republican leaders. Though Congress passed legislation designed to curb Klan terrorism, the organization saw its primary goal–the reestablishment of white supremacy–fulfilled through Democratic victories in state legislatures across the South in the 1870s. After a period of decline, white Protestant nativist groups revived the Klan in the early 20th century, burning crosses and staging rallies, parades and marches denouncing immigrants, Catholics, Jews, blacks and organized labor. The civil rights movement of the 1960s also saw a surge of Ku Klux Klan activity, including bombings of black schools and churches and violence against black and white activists in the South https //www history com/topics/reconstruction/ku-klux-klan Japanese Interment Camps World War 2 inside USA Although not necessarily of the far right KKK ilk, the tendency for the American government to punish Japanese for what Japan did during the Pearl Harbor bombing will always be suspect and a low point in American history. History Japanese Internment https://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/japanese-american-relocation Trail of Tears https://www.history.com/topics/native-american-history/trail-of-tears Excerpt:  At the beginning of the 1830s, nearly 125,000 Native Americans lived on millions of acres of land in Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama, North Carolina and Florida–land their ancestors had occupied and cultivated for generations. By the end of the decade, very few natives remained anywhere in the southeastern United States. Working on behalf of white settlers who wanted to grow cotton on the Indians’ land, the federal government forced them to leave their homelands and walk thousands of miles to a specially designated “Indian territory” across the Mississippi River. This difficult and sometimes deadly journey is known as the Trail of Tears. The 'Indian Problem' White Americans, particularly those who lived on the western frontier, often feared and resented the Native Americans they encountered: To them, American Indians seemed to be an unfamiliar, alien people who occupied land that white settlers wanted (and believed they deserved). Some officials in the early years of the American republic, such as President George Washington, believed that the best way to solve this “Indian problem” was simply to “civilize” the Native Americans. The goal of this civilization campaign was to make Native Americans as much like white Americans as possible by encouraging them convert to Christianity, learn to speak and read English and adopt European-style economic practices such as the individual ownership of land and other property (including, in some instances in the South, African slaves). In the southeastern United States, many Choctaw, Chickasaw, Seminole, Creek and Cherokee people embraced these customs and became known as the “Five Civilized Tribes.” Indian Removal Andrew Jackson had long been an advocate of what he called “Indian removal.” As an Army general, he had spent years leading brutal campaigns against the Creeks in Georgia and Alabama and the Seminoles in Florida–campaigns that resulted in the transfer of hundreds of thousands of acres of land from Indian nations to white farmers. As president, he continued this crusade. In 1830, he signed the Indian Removal Act, which gave the federal government the power to exchange Native-held land in the cotton kingdom east of the Mississippi for land to the west, in the “Indian colonization zone” that the United States had acquired as part of the Louisiana Purchase. (This “Indian territory” was located in present-day Oklahoma.) The law required the government to negotiate removal treaties fairly, voluntarily and peacefully: It did not permit the president or anyone else to coerce Native nations into giving up their land. However, President Jackson and his government frequently ignored the letter of the law and forced Native Americans to vacate lands they had lived on for generations. In the winter of 1831, under threat of invasion by the U.S. Army, the Choctaw became the first nation to be expelled from its land altogether. They made the journey to Indian Territory on foot (some “bound in chains and marched double file,” one historian writes) and without any food, supplies or other help from the government. Thousands of people died along the way. It was, one Choctaw leader told an Alabama newspaper, a “trail of tears and death.” The Trail of Tears The Indian-removal process continued. In 1836, the federal government drove the Creeks from their land for the last time: 3,500 of the 15,000 Creeks who set out for Oklahoma did not survive the trip. The Cherokee people were divided: What was the best way to handle the government’s determination to get its hands on their territory? Some wanted to stay and fight. Others thought it was more pragmatic to agree to leave in exchange for money and other concessions. In 1835, a few self-appointed representatives of the Cherokee nation negotiated the Treaty of New Echota, which traded all Cherokee land east of the Mississippi for $5 million, relocation assistance and compensation for lost property. To the federal government, the treaty was a done deal, but many of the Cherokee felt betrayed; after all, the negotiators did not represent the tribal government or anyone else. “The instrument in question is not the act of our nation,” wrote the nation’s principal chief, John Ross, in a letter to the U.S. Senate protesting the treaty. “We are not parties to its covenants; it has not received the sanction of our people.” Nearly 16,000 Cherokees signed Ross’s petition, but Congress approved the treaty anyway. By 1838, only about 2,000 Cherokees had left their Georgia homeland for Indian Territory. President Martin Van Buren sent General Winfield Scott and 7,000 soldiers to expedite the removal process. Scott and his troops forced the Cherokee into stockades at bayonet point while whites looted their homes and belongings. Then, they marched the Indians more than 1,200 miles to Indian Territory. Whooping cough, typhus, dysentery, cholera and starvation were epidemic along the way, and historians estimate that more than 5,000 Cherokee died as a result of the journey. By 1840, tens of thousands of Native Americans had been driven off of their land in the southeastern states and forced to move across the Mississippi to Indian Territory. The federal government promised that their new land would remain unmolested forever, but as the line of white settlement pushed westward, “Indian Country” shrank and shrank. In 1907, Oklahoma became a state and Indian Territory was gone for good. https://www.history.com/topics/native-american-history/trail-of-tears The Long Walk - The Navajo Trail of Tears https://www.npr.org/2005/06/15/4703136/the-navajo-nation-s-own-trail-of-tears Wounded Knee https://www.history.com/topics/native-american-history/wounded-knee Wounded Knee Massacre - South Dakota - near the end of the 1800s December 29, 1890 Description  The Wounded Knee Massacre, also called the Battle of Wounded Knee, was a domestic massacre of several hundred Lakota Indians, almost half of whom were women and children, by soldiers of the United States Army. Wikipedia Date: December 29, 1890 Location: Wounded Knee Creek, SD Result: Approximately 300 men, women, and children of the Lakota had been killed and 51 were wounded (4 men and 47 women and children, some of whom died later). Twenty-five soldiers also died, and 39 were wounded (6 of the wounded later died). ARTICLES Washington Post My fellow brothers and sisters in blue what the hell… https //www washingtonpost.com/ The Guardian 2006/02/06   South Africa - Israel: Brothers in arms - Israel's secret pact with Pretoria   By Chris McGreal Excerpt:  During the second world war the future South African prime minister John Vorster was interned as a Nazi sympathiser. Three decades later he was being feted in Jerusalem. In the second part of his remarkable special report, Chris McGreal investigates the clandestine alliance between Israel and the apartheid regime, cemented with the ultimate gift of friendship - A-bomb technology https://www.theguardian.com/world/2006/feb/07/southafrica.israel [Note From PF:  this article is interesting.  It shows various sides of Jews in South Africa and Israel.  It depicts Jews who were racists against blacks and supporting apartheid, as well as those who were victims of apartheid or, as a minority in parliament, tried to fight it.] Journalists Resource 2019/07/23   White supremacy: Research on cyber-racism and violence By Denise-Marie Ordway Note From PF:  Whenever the Southern Poverty Law Center is mentioned as a resource against right-wing hate crimes, be careful.  The group has several lawsuits going and has been investigated for its own types of corruption.  The ADL used to support positive constructs against anti-semitism, but now is suspect, and there are indications it is cooperating with the SPLC. https://journalistsresource org/studies/society/race-society/white-supremacy-research-cyber-racism/ Long Excerpt:  actors influencing right-wing terrorism 2017 The Determinants of Domestic Right-Wing Terrorism in the USA: Economic Grievance, Societal Change and Political Resentment.  By Piazza, James A. Conflict Management and Peace Science In this study, James A. Piazza, a political science professor at Pennsylvania State University, looks at the impact of a variety of economic, social and political factors on domestic, right-wing terrorism over four decades. He focuses on three categories of possible predictors of terrorism: economic hardships and grievance; societal changes aimed at empowering and including women and racial minorities and reducing white male privilege; and resentment toward the U.S. government and political system.  The main findings: Rising abortion rates and female participation in the labor force precipitate right-wing terrorist attacks in the U.S., as does the election of a Democratic president. Meanwhile, there is not a statistically significant link between the growth of minority populations and domestic terrorism. Piazza finds that poverty, Democratic control of state government and increased federal income tax rates also are not predictors of domestic terrorism.  Piazza analyzed 578 incidents of right-wing terrorism in the U.S. between 1970 and 2011, which were documented by the Global Terrorism Database, maintained by the University of Maryland’s Center for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism. Data for the year 1993 were unavailable, however, because that information was lost during an office move. Piazza defines domestic terrorism as “attacks occurring within the boundaries of the 50 states, perpetrated by U.S. citizens or residents against other U.S. citizens or residents with the intention of influencing a primarily domestic, U.S. audience.” Almost one-quarter of terrorist attacks during this period were by people and organizations motivated by right-wing ideology. He finds that for every one point increase in a state’s abortion rate, right-wing terrorist incidents rose by 7.5%. But women entering the workforce and the election of a Democratic president have a greater impact. “For every 1% increase in female participation in the workforce, right-wing terrorist incidents increase by 153.1%, and attacks increase by 241.2% in years when the President is a Democrat,” Piazza writes.  “The results clearly highlight the social factors driving right-wing terrorism,” he writes. “Right-wing extremist rhetoric squarely places the source of ills afflicting ‘traditional’ American society and the proscriptive dominance of white males on the new, more prominent and more empowered place carved out for women in American life. As it turns out, the empowerment of women directly boosts right-wing terrorism.” 2018 The Rhetoric of White Supremacist Terror: Assessing the Attribution of Threat Blessing, Jason; Roberts, Elise. Working paper for Syracuse University’s Institute for National Security and Counterterrorism In this paper, researchers at Syracuse University look at who white supremacist terror groups portray as threats in their propaganda literature. They focus on three terror groups: the Ku Klux Klan, neo-Nazis and the Christian Identity movement. For this project, the researchers traveled to the Wilcox Collection of Contemporary Political Movements at the University of Kansas, which houses one of the largest collections of literature and media from right-wing political movements in the U.S.   The researchers examined documents circulated among the general public by leaders within these three groups. They note that the 1,297 pages they examined aren’t representative of the overall body of materials available, but offer insights into the kinds of themes presented in white supremacist propaganda. The authors explain that two primary themes emerged from their analysis: “(1) African-Americans as a threat to conceptions of White self-identity; and (2) Jews as … the main political threat to the White Supremacist Movement.” “Elites from the KKK, Neo-Nazi, and Christian Identity factions repeatedly call for whites to carry out violence against Blacks and Jews,” the authors write. “Rhetoric regarding other racial and ethnic populations, while present to some degree, pales in comparison to rhetoric regarding Jews and Blacks.” The researchers explain that even as the country undergoes economic and demographic changes, white supremacists continue to focus on black and Jewish communities. “This suggests that, despite the rhetoric devoted to immigrant communities and poor economic conditions, violent White Supremacist organizations may be mobilizing in response to what they see as traditional and long-standing threats/enemies to their goals,” the researchers write. “As such, the law enforcement community should remain focused on protecting the African-American and Jewish communities — communities that have been the dominant focus of calls to arms by White Supremacists.”   Cyber racism Online Networks of Racial Hate: A Systematic Review of 10 Years of Research on Cyber-Racism Bliuc, Ana-Maria; et al. Computers in Human Behavior, 2018. A team of researchers examines dozens of studies published between Jan. 1, 2005 and Dec. 31, 2015 to understand the goals and strategies of racists on the internet. The researchers point out that most of the 31 studies they examined involve text analyses of “online phenomena that involve racial hate, aggression and prejudice.” The researchers find that cyber-racism tends to come from two groups: racist organizations and individuals who often act anonymously. Racist organizations tend to use websites to communicate racist messages and ideas. They also communicate via online games located on racist websites. The authors write: “Racist groups use these channels to reach, not only general, but also very specific audiences. For instance, the video games made available to the public from far- right groups’ sites are often used as hidden opportunities to present a more attractive image of racist groups to existing and potential members, particularly targeting a younger audience.” Individuals acting independently post racist content on a wider array of channels, including news websites, blogs, discussion forums, chat rooms and social media platforms such as Facebook and YouTube. “The Internet allows racist messages to be communicated, not only by text, static images and symbols, but also by downloadable videos, music, and interactive online games,” the authors explain. They find that racist organizations carefully plan out their communication to achieve three primary goals: to strengthen the group by increasing the commitment of existing members and recruiting new ones, to disseminate racist propaganda, and to create a sense of transnational identity. Individuals have a different aim — to validate their racist views and hurt the “outgroup,” typically racial, ethnic and religious minorities. The authors find that the two categories of racists also have different strategies for achieving their goals. Organizations stress intergroup conflict, reframe racism as a natural response to white oppression and use humor to try to make racism mainstream. The strategies of individuals include trivializing racism, reframing the meaning of news coverage and creating “moral panic” about the outgroup. Cyberhate: A Review and Content Analysis of Intervention Strategies Blaya, Catherine. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 2018. In this research review, Catherine Blaya, president of the International Observatory of Violence in School at Nice Sophia Antipolis University in France, examines efforts to prevent or counter cyberhate in various countries. She looks specifically at efforts to fight cyberhate against children, teenagers and young adults who are racial, ethnic or religious minorities. A key takeaway: While many programs have been launched, none have been found to be effective. “Although intentions are good,” she writes, “we have no evidence that the steps that are undertaken are effective in preventing and reducing cyberhate.” Blaya examined 18 academic papers and reports, including those from human rights-related organizations and think tanks. They focus on four types of interventions — new policies that regulate free expression online; the use of technology to filter, block or address aggressive or hateful content; programs that teach young people how to evaluate online hate speech and address it; and programs that encourage “counterspeech” and prompt young people to respond to it with “counter-narrative campaigns.” Blaya stresses the need to “develop research and rigorous evaluation protocols for the evaluation of interventions to prevent and counter cyberhate.” She encourages international and inter-agency cooperation. “Hate online is a multifactorial issue that cannot be prevented or tackled unilaterally and locally,” she writes. Use of genetic ancestry testing  2019   Genetic Ancestry Testing Among White Nationalists: From Identity Repair to Citizen Science Panofsky, Aaron; Donovan, Joan. Social Studies of Science. How do white supremacists react when their peers’ genetic ancestry tests show they have non-white ancestry? To find out, researchers examined conversations about genetic tests on the white supremacist website Stormfront.org. According to the study, the website’s users were more likely to critique the genetic test or testing company than support or shame the people who posted what they considered to be disappointing results. The researchers — Aaron Panosky, a sociologist at the UCLA Institute for Society and Genetics, and Joan Donovan, director of the Technology and Social Change Research Project at Harvard Kennedy School’s Shorenstein Center on Media, Politics and Public Policy — examined 639 posts dated between 2004 and 2016 in which users disclosed the results of their genetic ancestry tests. The posts occurred within 70 different discussion threads. “The main finding here is that there are vastly more reactions about the interpretation of GATs [genetic ancestry tests] themselves than reactions to the individuals posting the results,” the authors write. “The wide range of discussion suggests GATs don’t have a clear meaning and represent a problem to be worked through by Stormfront users. Furthermore, emotionally supportive responses roughly balance out responses that take the results literally (as opposed to suspiciously) and shame, exclude or denounce the poster as not white.” The study offers insights into the ways the website’s users criticize and support one another and measure “whiteness.” The posts also offer insight into the conspiracy theories the website’s users share and discuss. The researchers note that the ancestry tests have encouraged white supremacists to further educate themselves about racial genetics, including genetic markers. The researchers suggest the tests could change how white supremacists compare themselves to others. “Consumer genetic tests are increasingly offering genetic trait prediction — from hair and eye color to tasting preferences to IQ — which will soon provide white nationalists ample material for adding notions of ‘genetic quality’ to their evolving identities, boundaries and racial theories.” Additional resources: The National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism, commonly referred to as START, is a research center located at the University of Maryland that is “comprised of an international network of scholars committed to the scientific study of the causes and human consequences of terrorism in the United States and around the world.” The Institute for National Security and Counterterrorism, located at Syracuse University, does research on national and international security and counterterrorism. Data & Society is a New York-based research institute that examines technology and automation. The Southern Poverty Law Center is an advocacy organization that tracks hate groups in the U.S. The Center on Extremism at the Anti-Defamation League, which also is an advocacy organization, is “a clearinghouse of valuable, up-to-the minute information about extremism of all types — from white supremacists to Islamic extremists.” Joan Donovan is director of the Technology and Social Change Research Project at Harvard Kennedy School. She’s also the project lead on media manipulation at Data & Society. Jessie Daniels is a sociologist at the City University of New York who has written two books on white supremacy, White Lies and Cyber Racism: White Supremacy Online and the New Attack on Civil Rights. Her new book, Tweet Storm: The Rise of the Far-Right, the Mainstreaming of White Supremacy, and How Tech & Media Helped, is forthcoming. Harvard race and history scholar Khalil Gibran Muhammad offers advice on when journalists should use the term “racist.” Al Jazeera  Note from PF:  this media source is listed in Alternative News Section as a group that has aligned itself with acts of terror against the American military and media, as in torture of abductees, by posting articles showing beheadings; it’s a good idea to keep track of what Al Jazeera is saying because it tells you what the enemy is thinking, and you can connect the dots with other media groups, including supposedly western ones, who sound like this one Vikings vs Neo-Nazis: Battling the Far Right in Sweden 2020/03/21   A Viking enthusiast confronts a neo-Nazi leader for misappropriating Viking symbols for white supremacist propaganda. https //www aljazeera com/programmes/witness/2020/03/vikings-neo-nazis-battling-sweden-200319123918169.html   Updates: page White Extremism started 2020/05/31
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