Iraq-1a Weapons, Battles, US Invasion
IRAQ SECTION Iraq-1a o Terminology Iraq-1b o Operations o Battles, Encounters, incidents Iraq-2 5-Troop Misconduct 6-Iran-Iraq-USA 7-Injuries (also Veterans Issues) 8-Deaths 9-United Kingdom Involvement Iraq, other allies (Afghanistan and Iraq) 10-Some mentioned divisions 11-Some mentioned names 12-Iraq after Op End. Freedom 13- Very brief history of Iraq 14-Iraq War Contractors 15-Other Allies of the USA in Iraq - OIF Iraq-3 Iraq-4 Case Study Perfect Storm o 4a learnable lessons (takeaways) o 4b Iraq-5-Links See also Taps-1a Memorial Taps-1b Articles Islamic Section Road Bombs ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TERMINOLOGY - BRIEF Common Weapons and Equipment at least up through the end of Operation Iraqi Freedom Weapons IEDs (also VBIEDs) EFPs RPGs Air Vehicles Apaches Chinooks Black Hawks Tanks, Vehicles Abrams Armored Security Vehicles Bradleys Humvees MRAPS Strykers Tech Assisted Reconnaisance, Insurgent/Bomb Deterrence Unmanned Tech UAVs EODs Army Levels Top to Bottom: Corps Division Brigade or Regiment Battalion Company or Battery or Troop Squad UAVs Unmanned Technology https colon //en dot wikipedia dot org/wiki/UAVs_in_the_U.S._military The military role of unmanned aircraft systems is growing at unprecedented rates. In 2005, tactical- and theater-level unmanned aircraft alone had flown over 100,000 flight hours in support of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom, in which they are organized under Task Force Liberty in Afghanistan and Task Force ODIN in Iraq. Rapid advances in technology are enabling more and more capability to be placed on smaller airframes, which is spurring a large increase in the number of Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (SUAS) being deployed on the battlefield. The use of SUAS in combat is so new that no formal DoD wide reporting procedures have been established to track SUAS flight hours. As the capabilities grow for all types of UAS, nations continue to subsidize their research and development, leading to further advances and enabling them to perform a multitude of missions. UAS no longer only perform intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance missions, although this still remains their predominant type. Their roles have expanded to areas including electronic attack, drone strikes, suppression or destruction of enemy air defense, network node or communications relay, combat search and rescue, and derivations of these themes. These UAS range in cost from a few thousand dollars to tens of millions of dollars, with aircraft ranging from less than https colon //en dot wikipedia dot org/wiki/UAVs_in_the_U.S._military EODS Explosive Ordnance Disposal https://www.iimef.marines.mil/News-Releases/Article/565927/bombs-away-eod-disposes-of-explosive-threats/ Excerpt: MARINE CORPS BASE CAMP LEJEUNE, NC -- Thick gray smoke filled the air after the loud bang. But, don’t worry; explosive ordnance disposal technicians actually produced the blast to make the area safer. Marines from EOD Company, 8th Engineer Support Battalion, participated in their end of the year field training exercise Dec. 8-17, 2014, aboard Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, combining everything they’ve learned throughout the year into one final exercise. EOD techs practiced dealing with mock-improvised explosive devises, unexploded ordnance, and chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear explosives. WEAPONS RPGs Rocket Propelled Grenade; there is a history over time regarding the development and uses of this. Largely to be held on the shoulder and directed against tanks, an earlier variation was used in Vietnam. Britannica Photo of a Shiite Iraqi male carrying an RPG in Iraq in 8/7/2004; Photo of a shoulder held anti-tank launcher M136 ATR: https://www.britannica.com/technology/RPG-7 Excerpt: Other countries also developed small shoulder-held recoilless launchers firing shaped-charge warheads. Some of them, such as the American AT4, came preloaded and were designed to be discarded after firing. AIR VEHICLES Apaches Chinooks Black Hawks (also see UAVs like RQ-7 Shadow) Kiowa Light Helicopters Apache [Photo Left Below: AH-64 Apache] Wikipedia List of Aviation Shootdowns and Accidents During Iraq War https //en wikipedia org/wiki/List_of_aviation_shootdowns_and_accidents_during_the_Iraq_War 2003 Najaf Excerpt: Despite this failed mission, the Army insists the Apache was indispensable during the war, providing critical close air support for ground troops engaged in combat and armed reconnaissance by helping to destroy Iraqi armor and other key equipment lurking on the edges of the battlefield. “Our Apaches did great for us,” said Maj. Gen. David H. Petraeus, commander of the 101st Airborne Division, during a briefing after the war. “We were flexible and adaptable in the way that we used them.” https //www airforcemag com/article/1003najaf/ Chinook [Photo Left Below: CH-47 Chinook] Afghanistan war logs: US covered up fatal Taliban missile strike on Chinook Surface-to-air strike over Helmand shows Taliban had strong anti-aircraft capabilities earlier than previously thought https://www.theguardian.com/world/2010/jul/25/afghanistan-taliban-missile-strike-chinook The US military covered up a reported surface-to-air missile strike by the Taliban that shot down a Chinook helicopter over Helmand in 2007 and killed seven soldiers, including a British military photographer, the war logs show. GROUND VEHICLES Note to the fellow novice: At first glance, these vehicles might seem kind of the same. Start by looking for whether there are wheels or tracks. Then note if wheels, how many. Notice tanks have tracks; for example, Abrams are tanks. Then notice if it is mostly to fight or a carrier to both carry infantry and do some fighting. Notice how some have special armor that looked V- shaped, some are longer than others, some are more jeep-like. Notice how vehicles changed to respond to certain threats like IEDs, EFPs and anti-tank guided missiles. Pay attention to how tires and steel burn, how weapons and explosives on the vehicle can pop or add to a fire problem. Abrams These are tanks 1980s onward until they became replaced by guided missile tanks. They were used in Desert Storm and beyond. See Abrams’s M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 1982-1992 by Steve Zaloga and Peter Sarson and M1 Abrams in action by Jim Mesko. The Fulda Gap 2018/01/09 The M1 Abrams and Iraq. By Aram S https://www.thefuldagap.com/2018/01/09/the-m1-abrams-and-iraq/ Excerpt: The tank, once thought to be nearly invincible, has absolutely begun to show its age and vulnerability to newer, more advanced anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) systems….[On Operation Enduring Freedom]…by the time the invasion of Iraq came about on March 19, 2003, the most advanced version of the Abrams fielded was designated the M1A2SEP1. These tanks featured upgraded armor and electrical systems, a new cooling system, and modernized sensors/sights. However, the majority of tanks deployed in 2003 were of the M1A2 variety, which had been introduced first in 1986. Unfortunately for the US military, this generational difference in vehicles would prove deadly. While no Abrams tanks were reportedly destroyed in action by enemy fire, at least 530 were damaged so heavily that they had to be returned to the US for repairs (during the period 2003 – 2009). This staggering number of damaged vehicles, compared with the number lost during Desert Storm, can be attributed to a number of issues. First, the occupation of Iraq lasted far longer than the Gulf War did. Second, the insurgents in Iraq used massive roadside bombs for their attacks, which often disabled tanks (as opposed to outright destroying them). Finally, the advent of roadside bombs with explosively formed penetrator (EFP) warheads meant that explosives found lying around Iraq (leftovers from the both wars) could be turned into deadly anti-tank weapons. https://www.thefuldagap.com/2018/01/09/the-m1-abrams-and-iraq/ [Accessed from internet on 2020/02/02] Bradleys - BFV - Armored fighting vehicle, M2, M3 Wikipedia https://en dot wikipedia dot org/wiki/Bradley_Fighting_Vehicle Excerpt: The Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV) is a fighting vehicle platform of the United States manufactured by BAE Systems Land & Armaments, formerly United Defense. It was named after U.S. General Omar Bradley. The Bradley is designed to transport infantry or scouts with armor protection, while providing covering fire to suppress enemy troops and armored vehicles. The several Bradley variants include the M2 Bradley infantry fighting vehicle and the M3 Bradley cavalry fighting vehicle. The M2 holds a crew of three (a commander, a gunner, and a driver) along with six fully equipped soldiers. The M3 mainly conducts scout missions and carries two scout troopers in addition to the regular crew of three, with space for additional BGM-71 TOW missiles. The Red River Army Depot in Texarkana, Texas, is the Center of Industrial Technical Excellence for the maintenance and repair of the Bradley system. During the Gulf War, M2 Bradleys destroyed more Iraqi armored vehicles than the M1 Abrams. A total of 20 Bradleys were lost—three by enemy fire and 17 due to friendly fire incidents; another 12 were damaged. https //en dot wikipedia dot org/wiki/Bradley_Fighting_Vehicle Humvees “The Humvee was the American successor to the jeep…The downside of the Humvee is that, despite being a military vehicle, it was basically designed to be a non-combatant, providing mobility for forces behind the front lines…” (See Washpark Prophet Blogspot below for a good run-down of the Humvee subject.) Note from RG/PF: The Humvee was used a long time. Armor was added to the basic model. However, they just simply did not cut it. Many, many people died in them from a variety of explosions. The military kept sending people out in them. When any combat veteran tells you he was hit by an IED or EFP in the road while in a vehicle, consider asking, “What kind of vehicle were you riding in at the time?” Also in EFPs section, there is a photo of a bombed Humvee at this link: https //www militarytimes com/news/pentagon-congress/2015/07/14/iran-linked-to-deaths-of- 500-u-s-troops-in-iraq-afghanistan/ Army tech dot com 2014)The end of an icon rise and fall of the Humvee https://www.army-technology.com/features/featureend-of-an-icon-the-rise-and-fall-o [the link doesn’t seem to work] Excerpt: For nearly 30 years the Humvee has been the workhorse of militaries across the globe. It has achieved iconic status and is now one of the most recognisable vehicles on the planet. But after criticisms that it can no longer protect troops in combat, the US Army is planning to replace it. Is this the end of the Humvee’s story, or is there more to come for this symbol of US military might? CBS 2004/05/06 Despite Upgrades, Humvee Deaths Up https://www.cbsnews.com/news/despite-upgrades-humvee-deaths-up Excerpt: Coming on the heels of insurgent violence in Iraq on Wednesday, a new report says that despite stronger armor on over 50,000 Humvees and other military vehicles throughout Iraq and Afghanistan, roadside bombs have killed more U.S. troops this year based on Pentagon records. Most are dying in their Humvees, USA Today reports, as insurgents plant more powerful bombs and use different triggering methods to evade U.S. countermeasures, experts tell the newspaper. According to Pentagon casualty reports, 67 U.S. troops have died this year in roadside bomb attacks on their Humvees, and another 22 troops were killed when IEDs hit other military vehicles, including more heavily armored tanks and troop carriers. https://www.cbsnews.com/news/despite-upgrades-humvee-deaths-up Marine Corps Times dot com (2017/11/21) Why the hell are Marines still driving Humvees? https colon //www dot marinecorpstimes dot com/news/your-marine-corps/2017/11/21/why-the-hell-are- marines-still-driving-humvees Wash Park Prophet Blogspot (2006) Humvee Problem https colon //washparkprophet dot blogspot dot com/2006/03/humvee-problem.html Note from PF/RG: this was added here in more depth than normal because of all the deaths and injuries in Humvees in Iraq and elsewhere. It gives the background of Humvees, why it was a preferred vehicle for many years, and its weaknesses. Excerpt: The Humvee was the American successor to the jeep. It entered service in 1985, as one of the last major military systems purchased in the Cold War, and was used first in the First Gulf War under the administration of the elder George Bush, then in Kosovo and Bosnia and Somalia during the Clinton administration, and is now being widely used in the Iraq War and in Afghanistan during the administration of George W. Bush. The military has tens of thousands of them, if not hundreds of thousands of them, and there are about a dozen different variants of them. When the Humvee was first designed, the main focus was on its off road capabilities. There is probably no four wheeled vehicle that rivals it in this respect. Its low center of gravity, wide frame, four wheel drive and other features allow it to climb steep hills (60% grade), drive with a right side much higher than its left (40% grade), or visa versa, and its undercarriage is designed to give it exceptionally high clearance (16 inches) of rocks and tree stumps and debris that may be in its way, and ford shallow streams (30 inches in a standard configuration). In short, it is designed to be able to carry modest loads of cargo and troops anywhere tracked military vehicles, like tanks and Bradley fighting vehicles, could while getting fuel economy at about 12 mpg, which isn't great, but is far better than a tank, 0.5 mpg, or a Bradley, at about 1.5 mpg. (A Stryker gets about 6 mpg.) The downside of the Humvee is that, despite being a military vehicle, it was basically designed to be a non- combatant, providing mobility for force[s] behind the front lines in a European conflict with the Soviet Union. As one commentator puts it, "'just getting around and doing work, particularly in quieter areas' is a role concept that becomes deeply questionable for a military vehicle." Civilian vehicles without extreme off roads capabilities can do that in areas that are genuinely behind the front lines, like military bases away from combat zones, for less money with greater performance. But, a vehicle that isn't even armored enough to stop shrapnel and ordinary firearm rounds, and has no design features to protect its occupants from land mines is ill suited for use in a combat zone, even when the opposition has already been stripped of heavy weapons like aircraft, tanks and heavy artillery.This is particularly a concern as the roles of the Humvee have expanded because the military has a great many of them. While it was well designed to serve as a behind the front lines cargo/troop carrier, or shelter carrier, and is reasonably useful as a field ambulance, its design its less suited to its roles as a patrol vehicle and automatic weapons platform, which implies a vehicle likely to get into firefights, as an anti-tank missile carrier, and hence very near enemy tanks, or as a light howitzer carrier, and hence operating close to the battlefield and possibly facing return fire. In the conflicts where it has been used militarily, its role as a automatic weapons platform on patrol duty in urban or hostile territories, for which it wasn't designed, has been particularly in demand, and while there has been relatively little occasion for Humvees to be used in the extreme off road environments for which it was designed. Another problem with the Humvee is its size. While two or three of them can fit on a C-130 intratheater transport plane, they can not be carried on a V-22, or internally by any American military helicopter, and are difficult for all but the largest of American military helicopters to carry externally. This means that troops delivered by helicopter have to walk or use some other vehicle once they are dropped off. These are the problems that are driving the choice of successors to the Humvee. Vehicles can be designed to better address these problems, and it will probably take three different kinds of vehicles to address the problems that have arisen with it. Armor can provide protection against enemy gunfire in firefights, and many existing Humvees have been armored to address this issue. But, the Humvee wasn't designed to carry the kind of weight that armor creates, so armored Humvees face suspension problems and other maintenance difficulties. Improvised armor is often not terribly good at protecting occupants. And, even relatively ample, factory designed armor isn't sufficient to make a Humvee impervious to heavier weapons like anti-tank rounds and rocket propelled grenades (RPGs). https colon //washparkprophet dot blogspot dot com/2006/03/humvee-problem.html Wikipedia Humvee Replacement Process also gives some background of the history of the vehcle https colon //www dot army-technology dot com/features/featureend-of-an-icon-the-rise-and-fall-o M1117 Guardian - Armored Security Vehicle (ASV) Book US Army and Marine Corps MRAPs: Mine Resistant Ambush Protected Vehicles By Mike Guardia See pages 19-20 on a good discussion on ASV’s https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M1117_Armored_Security_Vehicle Excerpt: The M1117 Guardian, also denoted Armored Security Vehicle (ASV), is an internal security vehicle based on the V-100 and V-150 Commando series of armored cars. It was developed in the late 1990s for service with the United States Military Police Corps.[2] The first prototypes appeared in February 1997 and serial production of the M1117 commenced between 1999 and early 2000.[2] The M1117 was one of the first American military vehicles to be built on a specialized mine-resistant hull, and after 2001 was adopted in increasing numbers as a direct response to the threat posed by improvised explosive devices to US forces in Iraq and Afghanistan.[3][4] Its armament consists of an Mk 19 grenade launcher and M2HB Browning machine gun, mounted in a turret similar to that used on the U.S. Marine Corps' Amphibious Assault Vehicle; and a M240H Medium Machine Gun mounted outside the gunner's hatch. The vehicle was utilized by American military police and convoy security units in Iraq and Afghanistan. It is a more heavily protected and heavily armed alternative to the armored Humvee which was not originally designed to be a protected fighting vehicle. In 2015 Textron Systems rebranded the M1117 as the COMMANDO™ family of vehicles, bringing back the name of the vehicle from which the M1117 was derived.[5] https //en.wikipedia org/wiki/M1117_Armored_Security_Vehicle MRAPs 2007-2012 (Mine Resistant Ambush Protected) armored vehicles; Examples: Force Protection Cougar H, International MaxxPro Wikipedia en dot wikipedia dot org › wiki › MRAP Excerpt: The United States Department of Defense MRAP program began in 2007 as a response to the increased threat of IEDs during the Iraq War. From 2007 until 2012, the MRAP program deployed more than 12,000 vehicles in the Iraq War and War in Afghanistan. Production of MRAP vehicles officially ended in 2012. [there is a photo of an MRAP at this link] en dot wikipedia dot org › wiki › MRAP Strykers, Stryker Mobile Gun System (MGS); “The vehicle is named for two unrelated U.S. soldiers who posthumously received the Medal of Honor: Private First Class Stuart S. Stryker, who died in World War II, and Specialist Four Robert F. Stryker, who died in the Vietnam War.” It is a family of eight-wheeled armored fighting vehicles derived from the Canadian LAV III. Stryker vehicles are produced by General Dynamics Land Systems Canada for the United States Army. It has 4-wheel drive (8×4) and can be switched to all- wheel drive (8×8)(Wikipedia/Stryker) News Miner (2020/01/08) About 2,200 Fort Wainwright Stryker soldiers are in Iraq. By Alistair Gardiner. http://www.newsminer.com/news/local_news/about-fort-wainwright-stryker-soldiers-are-in-iraq/article_8f27c092- 31f1-11ea-af15-cbfa5e8cd596.html Popular Mechanics (2009/10/01) Stryker Crews in Iraq Rally to Defend Their Rides: Field Report. By Joe Pappalardo https://www.popularmechanics.com/military/a2696/4253991/ Excerpt: The MGS has the same body as nine other Stryker variants, so it shares design flaws common to them all, including vulnerable wheels, inadequate armor and cramped operating conditions. Other complaints specific to the MGS variant revolve around computer system freezes, and instability caused by its large, tanklike main gun. https://www.popularmechanics.com/military/a2696/4253991/ Some general info on Abrams, Bradleys, Strykers etc Book (2010/07) OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM US ARMY: Abrams, Bradley and Stryker By Andy Renshaw (also listed in Books) MWI do USMA do edu Light, Mobile, and Many: Rethinking the Future of Armor https://mwi.usma.edu/light-mobile-many-rethinking-future-armor/ Technology Review dot com How Technology Failed in Iraq The Iraq War (2003) was supposed to be a preview of the new U.S. military: a light, swift force that relies as much on sensors and communications networks as on heavy armor and huge numbers. But once the shooting started, technology fell far short of expectations. by David TalbotNov 1, 2004 https://www.technologyreview.com/s/403319/how-technology-failed-in-iraq/ Excerpt: Ultimately, some 10,000 vehicles and 300,000 coalition troops rumbled across the sandy berm at the Kuwaiti border, 500 kilometers from Baghdad. Desert highways crawled with columns of Abrams tanks, Bradley fighting vehicles, armored personnel carriers, tank haulers, Humvees, and of course, fuel tankers to slake the fleet’s nine-million-liter daily demand for fuel. https://www.technologyreview.com/s/403319/how-technology-failed-in-iraq/ 4a Case Study The Perfect Storm moved to Iraq-4 Updates: 2022/01/06 The Perfect Storm section was given its own page today; 2022/01/05 The Perfect Storm added; 2020/06/12 Chinook and Apache photos added; Some material on Apache at Najaf in 2003; 2020/05/05-06 a variety of changes underway; the entire section was moved from River Gold; various links might not work as a result of the transition but are being worked on; M1117 Armored Security Vehicle (ASV) added to list of vehicles along with photo; MRAP photo and MRAP material moved to right section (Vehicles) from where it had been misplaced in weapons; 2020/04/01 Allies section added to, addition of “Iraq and Afghanistan” for allies; Ballard et al quoted early post-9/11 coalition in Op. End. Freedom; 2020/03/29 edited some book material; 2020/02/21 added to Books sections comments on two books, incl. 10th Mtn Div. No Man Left Behind. Updates: 2020/02/09 UAVs, EODs added with links active2020/02/02 Desert Storm added to; Abrams material added; Page Two split off from this Page One section. Incorporating Old System Abuse/Iraq material into this overall section. 2020/02/01 Humvee, Stryker info added to, links activated inside the section; 2020/01/31 Why We Lost, by Dan Bolger, added to Books; IED/VBIED and RPG sections added to; 2020/01/26 book (2010/07) Operation Iraqi Freedom US Army : Abrams, Bradley and Stryker. By An dy Renshaw; added; 2020/01/22 Added (2017/04/13) Foley v. Syrian Arab Republic to Battles/Abductions/Wayback Web Archive Court Listener-;2020/01/20 PTSD moved to own page, identified under Injuries on this page; Books-added No Man Left Behind; 2020/01/19 Baghdad nearby abduction-2006/06 incident added; 2020/01/18 refining of incidents/abductions; 2020/01/16; 2020/01/14-15 mostly adding links to topics and fleshing out books and links per subject; there has been, and will continue to be, topic restructuring; 2020/01/11; 2020/01/10; 2020/01/09 Page started
IRAQ-1a US Invasion of Iraq and Beyond Weapons, Battles, US Invasion BOOKS-moved to Iraq-4 Resources-Links, Books Terminology (BRIEF) Common Weapons and Equipment at least up through Operation Iraqi Freedom Bombs, Explosives Road and Related Bombs moved to Road Bombs RPGs Air Vehicles Apaches Chinooks Black Hawks (also see UAVs like RQ-7 Shadow) Kiowa Light Helicopters Tanks, Vehicles Abrams Armored Security Vehicles Bradleys Humvees MRAPS Strykers Tech Assisted Reconnaisance, Insurgent/Bomb Deterrence Unmanned Tech UAVs EODs Army Levels Top to Bottom: Corps Division Brigade or Regiment Battalion Company or Battery or Troop Squad 4a Case Study - “The Perfect Storm” Chapter in book Endgame [has been moved to Iraq-4] incl. Takeaways/Lessons ie, on Airport Infiltrations Books from Iraq-q moved to Iraq-5 Resources