EL CHAPO“Is known for using intricate tunnel systems for both evading authorities and moving the massive quantities of drugs that made the Sinaloa Cartel so powerful.”2023Justice2023/04/14 Justice Department Announces Charges Against Sinaloa Cartel’s Global Operation“Chapitos” Charged in Department’s Latest Actions to Disrupt Flow of Illegal Fentanyl/Other Dangerous Drugshttps //www justice gov/opa/pr/justice-department-announces-charges-against-sinaloa-cartel-s-global-operation#:~:text=Fentanyl%20trafficking%2C%20weapons%2C%20and%20money%20laundering%20charges%20were,that%20fuel%20the%20Sinaloa%20Cartel%E2%80%99s%20fentanyl%20distribution%20operation.NY Times2023/05/12 El Chapo Sons Fentanyl Chargeshttps //www nytimes com/2023/05/12/us/el-chapo-sons-fentanyl-charges htmlNPR2023/04/21 U.S. says it 'infiltrated' the Sinaloa drug cartel in the fight against fentanyl. Brian Mannhttps //www npr org/2023/04/21/1170326191/fentanyl-mexico-drug-cartel-sinaloa-chapitos-el-chapoGovt. Orgs discussed: DOJ, DEAGrps, Names, Persons: the Chapitos faction is led by the four sons of Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán"While El Chapo's [era of] Sinaloa was about cocaine and meth, and to a much lesser extent, heroin, the Chapitos' Sinaloa is about fentanyl," said Vanda Felbab-Brown, a drug trafficking expert at the Brookings Institution. The Chapitos now allegedly operate a sophisticated network of fentanyl smugglers, money-launderers and drug-runners in countries around the world.CNN2023/01/06 Extradition of ‘El Chapo’ son to the US halted after 29 killed in arrest operationBy Elizabeth Plaza, Kiarinna Parisi, Mitchell McCluskey and Tara John, https //www cnn com/2023/01/06/americas/el-chapo-son-arrest-mexico-prison-intl/index.htmlCBC Canadahttps //www cbc ca/news/world/mexico-violence-guzman-arrest-1.67056492022Business Insider2022/10/02 From inside the US's most secure prison, El Chapo is pointing fingers at what he says are the real powers in the drug trade. Luis Chaparrohttps //www businessinsider com/el-chapo-says-us-mexico-leaders-are-behind-drug-trade-2022-9At the same time, García Luna is suspected to have made deals with high-ranking officials inside top US national security and law enforcement agencies.2021CNN2021/11/30 El Chapo’s Wife Sentenced Drug Trafficking Charges. Maria Santanahttps://www.cnn.com/2021/11/30/us/el-chapo-wife-sentence/index.html2020CNN2020/04/03 Update, Original article in 2017/01/18 Fast Facts: Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán https //www cnn com/2017/01/18/world/joaqun-el-chapo-guzmn-fast-facts/index htmlExcerpt: Here's a look at the life of Joaquín Guzmán, otherwise known as "El Chapo," a Mexican drug lord who has repeatedly broken out of prison. He was recaptured in January 2016 and later extradited to the United States to stand trial on federal charges… The nickname, "El Chapo," means "Shorty." Guzmán stands 5'6" tall. Former leader of the Sinaloa Cartel, which the US Justice Department describes as "one of the world's most prolific, violent and powerful drug cartels," moving billions upon billions of dollars in marijuana, cocaine, heroin and methamphetamine…Was able to continue running the Sinaloa Cartel in prison through bribes. Is known for using intricate tunnel systems for both evading authorities and moving the massive quantities of drugs that made the Sinaloa Cartel so powerful…José Sánchez VillalobosNational Post2020/01/24 Tunnel mastermind behind El Chapo's underground smuggling routes extradited to U.S.José Sánchez Villalobos was the alleged brains behind two state-of-the-art tunnels linking Tijuana on the Mexican side and San Diego on the U.S. side. National Post Staffhttps://nationalpost.com/news/world/tunnel-mastermind-brains-behind-el-chapos-cross-border-smuggling-routes-is-extradited-to-u-s2019 El Chapo (Guzman) sentenced, imprisoned at Colorado SupermaxJuly 17, 2019 - Guzmán is sentenced to life in prison plus 30 years. He is also ordered to pay $12.6 billion in forfeiture. Restitution will be determined later.October 17, 2019 - Mexican security forces temporarily detain Guzman Lopez during a shootout with suspected cartel members in Sinaloa state. Guzman Lopez is released and the operation suspended in order to save lives.https //www cnn com/2017/01/18/world/joaqun-el-chapo-guzmn-fast-facts/index html2019/07/18 El Chapo disappeared two days now is at the Supermax [in Colorado]https //www .nytimes.com/2019/07/18/nyregion/el-chapo-has-disappeared-is-he-at-the-supermax.html2019/07/21 El Chapo is Colorado’s newest transplanthttps //www westword.com/news/el-chapo-is-colorados-newest-transplant-but-he-wont-like-his-accommodations-11417724New York Times2019/10/18https://www.nytimes.com/2019/10/18/world/americas/mexico-cartel-chapo-son-guzman.htmlOther:Sergio Valenzuela - Sinaloa Top Lt.2021/09/22 Alleged Mexican drug cartel boss charged in California. By AP on Yahoohttps://news.yahoo.com/alleged-mexican-drug-cartel-boss-000302890.htmlSinaloa cartel-top lieutenant-Sergio Valenzuela-charged8/world/joaqun-el-chapo-guzmn-fast-facts/index htmlExcerpt: Here's a look at the life of Joaquín Guzmán, otherwise known as "El Chapo," a Mexican drug lord who has repeatedly broken out of prison. He was recaptured in January 2016 and later extradited to the United States to stand trial on federal charges… TUNNEL DETECTION TECHNOLOGYCBPhttps://www.cbp.gov/frontline/what-lies-beneathWhat Lies BeneathInvestigating Arizona's illicit subterranean passageways with Border Patrol's Tunnel TeamArticle by Jason McCammack, photos by Josh Denmark and videos by Dan Barrfrontline Tunnel Video 1When Supervisory Border Patrol Agent Thomas Pittman began investigating the drainage systems beneath Nogales, Arizona, 18 years ago, he discovered an underground Wild West.“The drainage tunnels were wide open and people were just flooding through them,” Pittman said. “Back then the drains had gates [along the channel between Nogales and Mexico] that were made out of simple landing mat and the illegals would just…2018National Defense Magazine2018/01/02 Going Underground: The U.S. Government’s Hunt for Enemy Tunnels. By Jon Harperhttps://www.nationaldefensemagazine.org/articles/2018/1/2/going-underground-the-us-governments-hunt-for-enemy-tunnels2014National Post2014/01/15 How Mexico drug tunnels are built and a closer look at the new border agency robots that will patrol t hem. By APhttps //nationalpost com/news/how-mexico-drug-tunnels-are-built-and-a-closer-look-at-the-new-border-agency-robots-that-will-patrol-themExcerpt: The job of searching these networks can be dangerous, so the U.S. Border Patrol is unveiling its latest technology in the underground war — a wireless, camera-equipped robot that can do the job in a fraction of the time. The agency is using the devices to keep agents out of harm’s way as many tunnels can be poorly built and possibly collapse and lack proper ventilation. The 5.4-kilogram robots also let agents navigate an underground labyrinth in a fraction of the time it would take an agent to explore the tunnel. And the devices can be used in tunnels and pipes where agents can’t fit. The tunnel robots have been in use by Border Patrol for several years. But the agency recently paid $109,000 for the three new cameras with money from an asset forfeiture fund, which comes from the seizure of property in criminal cases, including drug cases involving cartel members, the Border Patrol said…HOW ARE TUNNELS EXPLORED AND INVESTIGATED ONCE THEY’RE LOCATED?So-called tunnel robots have been in use by Border Patrol for several years. They can safely navigate through corrugated pipes, tunnels, and drainage systems while an agent controls the device from the surface, seeing what the robot sees on a handheld screen. The robots are used, in part, as a safety measure to keep agents out of harm’s way as many tunnels can be poorly built and possibly collapse and lack proper ventilation.They also can navigate an underground labyrinth in a fraction of the time it would take an agent to explore the tunnel. Some of the newer robots, which weigh about 5.5 kilograms and can navigate through passageways that are only several feet wide, are being deployed this year across southern Arizona and California.https //nationalpost com/news/how-mexico-drug-tunnels-are-built-and-a-closer-look-at-the-new-border-agency-robots-that-will-patrol-them2011Insight Crime2011/11/16 Tunnel Detection Technology at Mexico Border: Worth the Effort?ANALYSISWritten by Elyssa Pachico https //www insightcrime org/news/analysis/tunnel-detection-technology-at-mexico-border-worth-the-effort/Excerpt: One project experiments with ground sensors that use seismic waves to detect movement underground, as well as robots that map the terrain using infrared and other technologies. There a various technologies the U.S. can use to detect tunnels, but all have their limitations. Ground penetrating radar does a poor job at detecting anything before 40 feet. This does little good considering that one tunnel discovered between San Diego and Tijuana traveled at a depth of almost 100 feet below the surface. Ground radar readings are also affected by ground conditions, and give poor results in urban settings or in damp, clay-rich soils. Other research involves microgravity — the measurement of minute changes in Earth’s gravitational field caused by cavities in the ground. However, the equipment is costly and could give many false alarms. Other technologies using cosmic rays and electrodes have proven to be as equally limited. Tunnels vary greatly in dimension and depth, which also complicates detection through these high-tech methods. The Department of Defense is reportedly most focused on developing seismic and infrared technology to detect tunnels, although the Department of Homeland Security has observed that such research is slow and “labor intensive.” Israel has reportedly developed another method, using fiber optic cables, to track the tunnels excavated in the Gaza Strip and Lebanon. But installing such a system on a mass scale would be expensive and vulnerable to tampering.https //www insightcrime org/news/analysis/tunnel-detection-technology-at-mexico-border-worth-the-effort/2010Mitre dot org2010/09 UNDERGROUND RADAR SYSTEMS: FIGHTING TUNNELS WITH TUNNELSTo aid the U.S. Border Patrol in the time-consuming and difficult task of locating smuggling tunnels, MITRE has designed a prototype system to boost the capability of ground-penetrating radar.https //www mitre org/publications/project-stories/underground-radar-systems-fighting-tunnels-with-tunnelsExcerpt: Last summer, while pursuing a tip from an alert citizen, the border patrol in Nogales surprised a smuggler sawing a hole from beneath the floor of an empty building. Under the building the agents found a tunnel that stretched 83 feet to its origin in Mexico. The tunnel, a sophisticated construction complete with ventilation and lighting, was the largest of the more than 60 tunnels the border patrol had uncovered in Nogales. Along the entire Mexican border, agents have uncovered more than 100 smuggling tunnels. But finding each of these tunnels is time-consuming and difficult. To provide the border patrol with a reliable technological tool, MITRE designed a prototype system to boost the ability of ground-penetrating radar to spot tunnels. By running radar sensors through horizontal boreholes burrowed underground, border agents could get a much clearer view of the clandestine activity beneath their feet. Underground Assistance: Each of the smuggling tunnels near Nogales was uncovered through the border patrol's diligent intelligence gathering. While there is no replacing old-fashioned detective work, technology to reliably detect underground tunnels can only help make border agents' tough job easier. But the technology tested so far has not proved up to the task. For example, other sensors, such as current seismic sensors, have problems picking up signals in the midst of a noisy urban environment whereas the technology developed at MITRE does equally well in urban and isolated rural environments. For some time, the Border Patrol has relied on ground-penetrating radar sensors placed on the surface of the border. But smugglers have taken advantage of the limited ability of the radar to peer through the surface clay and sand composition of the terrain along the majority of the border by burrowing their tunnels deep enough underground—up to 90 feet—to escape detection. Underground sensors, however, have not proven the better alternative.https //www mitre org/publications/project-stories/underground-radar-systems-fighting-tunnels-with-tunnelsKen MacQueen (2 November 2005). "B.C.'s tunnel busters". Macleans.ca. Archived from the original on 2010-12-06. "Chapter 6: Washington State". United Divide: A Linear Portrait of the USA/Canada Border. The Center for Land Use Interpretation. Winter 2015. Cross-Border Tunnels and Border Tunnel Prevention: Fiscal Year 2015 Report to Congress (Report). United States Department of Homeland Security U.S. Customs and Border Protection. 2016. p. 6. Retrieved 22 December 2018. As of September 30, 2015, 183 illicit cross-border tunnels have been discovered in the United States since Fiscal Year 1990 "Drug haul in secret border tunnel". BBC News. 27 January 2006."Second Mexico-US drug tunnel found in Tijuana". BBC News. 26 November 2010. "Mexico's army finds drug tunnel to Arizona". GlobalPost. 2012-07-10. Retrieved 2014-03-01. Lichtenwald, Terrance G.; Perri, Frank S. (Spring 2011). "Smuggling Tunnels:The Need for a Transnational Analysis". Inside Homeland Security. 9 (1). Lichtenwald, Terrance G.; Perri, Frank S. (2013). "Terrorist Use of Smuggling Tunnels". International Journal of Criminology and Sociology. 2."Mexican Authorities Find Smuggling Tunnel Equipped With Electricity Near Border". KILT (AM). Associated Press. 28 December 2012. Retrieved 9 January 2013.Billeaud (14 January 2014). "How tunnels are built, used along U.S.-Mexico border". KPBS. Nogales, Arizona. Associated Press. Retrieved 4 April 2014. "Largest-ever drug tunnel in Nogales found". azcentral.com. Retrieved 12 November 2014. "US finds major cross-border tunnel used to smuggle drugs". AP NEWS. 2020-03-31. Retrieved 2020-04-02.https //en wikipedia org/wiki/Smuggling_tunnel#:~:text=As%20of%20September%2030%2C%202015,US%20Border%20Patrol%20task%20force.possible duplicate:Smuggling Tunnelshttps //en wikipedia org/wiki/Smuggling_tunnel#:~:text=As%20of%20September%2030%2C%202015,US%20Border%20Patrol%20task%20force.Excerpt: As of September 30, 2015, 183 illicit cross-border tunnels have been discovered in the United States since Fiscal Year 1990.On January 25, 2006, a tunnel was found on the US-Mexico border by a joint US Drug Enforcement Administration, US Immigration and Customs Enforcement, and US Border Patrol task force. The 2,400-foot (730 m) long tunnel runs from a warehouse near the Tijuana airport to a warehouse in San Diego. When discovered, it was devoid of people, but it did contain 2 short tons (1,800 kg) of marijuana. It was 5 feet (1.5 m) high and up to 90 feet (27 m) deep. The floor was made of cement, and the walls were exposed clay, with lights lining one side, a ventilation system to keep fresh air circulating, and a water drainage system to remove infiltrating ground water. Authorities said it was unclear how long the tunnel had been in operation.PARAGUAYPRISON TUNNELNew York Times2020/01/19 75 Drug Cartel Members Tunnel Out of Paraguay Prison. By Santi Carneri and Ernesto Londoñohttps //www nytimes co /2020/01/19/world/americas/paraguay-prison-escape-tunnelhtmlNational Post2020/01/20 Highly dangerous people': Brazilian cartel uses tunnel to free 75 inmates from Paraguay prisonWith more than 10,000 members, the PCC is one of Brazil’s largest criminal organizationshttps://nationalpost.com/news/world/highly-dangerous-people-brazilian-cartel-uses-tunnel-to-free-75-prisoners-from-paraguay-prison In a feat reminiscent of Joaquin “El Chapo” Guzman, at least 75 members of one of South America’s most notorious criminal gangs launched a spectacular jail break in Paraguay.The prisoners, including six alleged contract killers, appear to have fled through a large tunnel, the newspaper ABC reported. The justice ministry initially said 91 had escaped, and later reduced that figure to 75. All 75 remain at large in the area around the Brazil-Paraguay border; among them are an estimated 40 Brazilians and the remainder Paraguayans.The tunnel, which started in a cell and ended outside the prison walls, may have been a red herring to mask the fact that most of the escapees simply walked out of the main door, Interior Minister Euclides Acevedo told the TV station Telefuturo. Investigators believe some of them may even have left the prison in previous days, he said.The prisoners were members of the drug gang First Command of the Capital, known as PCC, Justice Minister Cecilia Perez told Telefuturo. With more than 10,000 members, the PCC is one of Brazil’s largest criminal organizations. The PCC dominates the drug trade and prisons in Sao Paulo and in recent years has expanded its operations into other countries including Paraguay.https://nationalpost.com/news/world/highly-dangerous-people-brazilian-cartel-uses-tunnel-to-free-75-prisoners-from-paraguay-prisonUpdates: 2023/1/24; PAGE STARTED-8b Smuggling Tunnels; 2022/11/25--2021 and 2022 smuggling tunnels added-Tijuana and Mexicali; 2022/03/06 KKTV-2021/08/10 and 10 News; 2021/09/28-Daily Mail-2018/08/23; fixed the El Chapo section in box; 2021/07/31: Daily Mail-2021/07/30; Fox-2020/09/24 article; Concho Valley Home Page dot com-2021/07/29 2020/06/14 El Chapo CNN-2019/04/03 Fast Facts section/article added at top of page; More added on March 2020 smuggling tunnel bust in San Diego; more added on Feb. 2020 smuggling tunnel bust in Nogales; Detection agency section created; Robots article added in Detection Tech, National Post 2014/01/15 article added. 2020/06/13 detection technology section added with 2011 insight crime, 2010 mitre and 2018 nat’l def. articles; 2020/06/12 several additions; 2020/06/11 See also borders link added; 2020/06/07 This page Tunnels-Smuggling created separately.
Borders-8: 8a8b8c•El Chapo section moved here, Chapo family, Sinaloa o2023▪Infiltration of SInaloa Chapitos, fentanyl ring: NPR-2023/04/21▪Extradition of ‘El Chapo’ son to the US halted after 29 killed in arrest operation. CNN-2023/01/06 ▪Justice Department Announces Charges Against Sinaloa Cartel’s Global Operation-DOJ-2023/04/14▪Behind New Indictments El Chapo Sons Fentanyl -NY Times-2023/05/12o2022▪ From inside the US's most secure prison, El Chapo is pointing fingers at [alleged] real powers in the drug trade. Business Insider-2022/10/02o2021▪El Chapo’s Wife Sentenced Drug Trafficking Charges. CNN-2021/11/30 o2020▪Update, Original article in 2017/01/18 Fast Facts: Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán -CNN-2020▪o2019▪El Chapo sentenced, jailed in Supermax Colorado: NY Times-2019/07▪etc…•Tunnel Detection Technology•Some Names in this materialoJosé Sánchez VillalobosoVanda Felbab-Brown, drug-trafficking expert Brookings•Legislation - Moved to Legislation Section 2021-2022 Leg-117•Paraguay Prison Tunnel-moved to 8c--------------------
Resources and Input Policing, Borders, Drugs, Cartels and System Corruption